Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kaito-   'chet, woods, forest'

Semantic Field(s): Woods, Forest


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Breton: coet, coat n chet, copse, undergrowth IEW
Old Cornish: cuit n chet IEW
Middle Cornish: co(y)s n chet IEW
Old Welsh: coit n chet IEW
Welsh: coed n chet IEW
Old English: hǣþ n heath W7
hǣðen adj heathen W7
Middle English: hather n heath W7
heth n heath W7
hethen adj heathen W7
English: Archet prop.n Bree village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
chet n woods/forest (in place names) LRC
Chetwood prop.n Bree woods in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
heath n shrubby dicotyledonous evergreen plant(s) AHD/W7
heathen adj re: pagan religion/customs AHD/W7
heather n heath W7
Heathertoes prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hoyden n girl/woman of saucy/boisterous/carefree behavior AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hēthen adj heathen ASD
Middle Dutch: heiden adj heathen W7
Dutch: heide n heath TLL
heiden n heathen; country lout W7
Old Saxon: hēðin adj heathen ASD
Old High German: heida n heather W7
heidan adj heathen W7
German: Heide n.fem heath ASD
Heide n.masc heathen ASD
Heidekraut n.neut heath ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: heiðinn adj heathen LRC
Icelandic: heiðinn adj heathen ASD
Danish: hede n heath TLL
Swedish: hed n heath TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: haiþno n.fem heathen, gentile woman ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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