Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. k̑ak-, k̑ek-?   'to help, enable'

Semantic Field(s): to Help, Aid


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: on-hagian vb.wk.trans to suit, be apt, accord with will/convenience ASD/KEW
Middle English: hacchen vb to hatch W7
English: hatch vb to brood, reproduce by incubation IEW/W7
Shakti prop.n sacred feminine force/power/energy (Hinduism) LRC
Sikh prop.n adherent of Sikhism LRC
West Germanic  
Old High German: hagan vb to tend, foster KDW
German: behagen vb to be suitable LRC
hegen vb to tend, foster LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hagr adj able, adept KNW
háttr n.masc kind, type; [pl.] habits, behavior, activity LRC
hœgr adj docile, affable; agile, skillful; suitable, expedient LRC
Sanskrit: Śakti prop.n Shakti, dynamic energy of god personified as female consort (Hinduism) W7
śaknó̄ti vb to be able, have power LRC
śakrá adj powerful LRC
śāci n might, powerful aid LRC
Hindi: Sikh prop.n Sikh, disciple W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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