Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. kal-, kali-, kalu-   'handsome, beautiful; healthy'

Semantic Field(s): Beautiful, Well; Health


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: calligraphy n (art of producing) fair/elegant handwriting AHD/W7
callipygian adj having shapely buttocks AHD/W9
Callisto prop.n (moon of Jupiter named for) nymph of Artemis LRC
calomel n mercurous chloride (used in medicine) AHD/W7
hemerocallis n day lily AHD/W7
New Latin: calomelas n.neut fungicide W7
hemerocallis n.fem day lily W7
French: calligraphie n.fem calligraphy W7
Homeric Greek: κάλλος n.neut beauty LRC
κᾱλός adj fair, good, beautiful LRC
Greek: hēmera n.fem day W7
hēmerokalles hemerocallis W7
kalli- stem beautiful W7
kalligraphia n.fem calligraphy W7
kallipygos adj callipygian W9
Sanskrit: kalya adj healthy W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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