Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kap-   'to cop, grab, grasp; have?'

Semantic Field(s): to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cachtaim vb to take captive RPN
Welsh: caeth n slave RPN
Old English: be-hōf n.masc use, purpose, behoof GED
be-hōfian, bihōfian vb.wk to need, behoove ASD/GED
habban, hæfde, hæfd vb.wk.III to have, possess LRC
hæf n sea LRC
hæfen(e) n.fem haven ASD/W7
hæft n.masc bond, fetter; captivity ASD/RPN
hæftan vb.wk to bind, arrest, confine ASD/RPN
hæft(e) n.neut haft ASD
hæften n.fem custody ASD/RPN
hæftnian vb.wk to take captive ASD/RPN
h(e)afoc, hafuc n.masc hawk ASD/W7
hebban, hæbban vb.str to heave ASD/W7
hefeld n heddle W7
hefig, hefeg adj heavy ASD/W7
Middle English: acatour n cater W7
accepten vb to accept W7
behaven vb to behave W7
behof n behoof W7
behoven vb to behoove W7
cable n cable W7
cacchen vb to catch W7
caitif adj caitiff W7
capcioun n caption W7
capcious adj captious W7
capias n capias W7
captive adj captive W7
catour n cater W7
conceiven vb to conceive W7
deceiven vb to deceive W7
excepten vb to except W7
haft n haft W7
hauk n hawk W7
haven n haven W7
haven vb to have W7
helde n heddle W7
heven vb to heave W7
hevy adj heavy W7
occupien vb to occupy W7
perceiven vb to perceive W7
precept n precept W7
receiven vb to receive W7
recoveren vb to recover W7
English: accept vb to receive with consent AHD/W7
anticipate vb to give thought/treatment/discussion in advance AHD/W7
behave vb to bear/comport (oneself) in particular way AHD/W7
behoof n profit, advantage AHD/W7
behoove vb to be proper/necessary/advantageous AHD/W7
cable n strong rope, esp. 3+ inches in diameter AHD/W7
caccia n (poem celebrating) chase W2I
cacciatore n hunter-style meal: meat stew with wine/herbs/onions etc. AHD
caitiff adj base, cowardly, despicable AHD/W7
capable adj susceptible, able to do AHD/W7
capacious adj able to contain large amount AHD/W7
capias n legal writ/process commanding officer to arrest person AHD/W7
capstan n vertical spindle-mounted windlass AHD/W7
caption n part of legal instrument AHD/W7
captious adj calculated to confuse/entrap/entangle in argument AHD/W7
captivate vb to seize, capture AHD/W7
captive adj taken/held as prisoner AHD/W7
captor n one who has captured person/thing AHD/W7
capture n catching/gaining control by force/guile/stratagem AHD/W7
catch, caught vb.str to seize/capture after pursuit AHD/W7
cater n buyer of provisions AHD/W7
cater vb.intrans to provide food AHD/W7
chase n pursuit, act of chasing AHD
chase vb to hunt, pursue, run after TLL
conceit n vain pride TLL
conceive vb to become pregnant AHD/W7
concept n notion, abstract figuration TLL
conception n onset of pregnancy TLL
cop n copper W7
cop vb.trans to catch, capture AHD/W7
copepod n small freshwater/marine crustacean AHD/W7
copper n policeman, one who cops W7
deceive vb to ensnare AHD/W7
except prep with exclusion/exception of W7
except vb to exclude, take/leave out AHD/W7
forceps n instrument for grasping/holding/exerting traction AHD/W7
gaff n spear(head) for taking fish/turtles AHD/W7
haff n lagoon LRC
haft n handle of tool/weapon AHD/W7
have, had vb.irr to hold/possess as property AHD/W7
haven n port, harbor AHD/W7
hawk n diurnal bird of prey AHD/W7
heave, hove vb.str/wk to lift, raise, elevate AHD/W7
heavy adj having great weight AHD/W7
heddle n set of parallel cords/wires in loom for guiding warp threads AHD/W7
heft n bulk, weight, heaviness AHD
inception n beginning, commencement AHD/W7
incipient adj commencing, beginning to be (apparent) AHD/W7
intercept vb.trans to stop/interrupt course/progress AHD/W7
municipal adj re: internal affairs of nation/other political unit AHD/W7
nuncupative adj oral, not written AHD/W7
occupy vb.trans to engage attention/energies of AHD/W7
participate vb to partake AHD/W7
perceive vb.trans to attain awareness/understanding of AHD/W7
precept n command/principle intended as general rule AHD/W7
receive vb to get, take/come into possession of AHD/W7
receptor n (sensory stimulus) receiver LRC
recipe n prescription AHD/W7
recover vb to regain, get back AHD/W7
recuperate vb to regain, get back AHD/W7
Sandheaver prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
susceptible adj re: submitting to action/process/operation AHD/W7
tactoreceptor n receptor responding to touch AHD
tangoreceptor n cutaneous receptor responding to touch/pressure AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: be-hōf n.masc use, purpose, behoof GED
habba, hebba vb to have GED
heƀig adj heavy ASD
heva vb to heave ASD
Frisian: kāpia vb to cop, take away W7
Dutch: haven n haven TLL
hebben vb to have TLL
kapen vb to cop, steal W7
Old Saxon: habbean vb to have GED
havan, hab@h%an n haven; bowl KSW
hebbian vb to heave ASD
heftian vb to bind, fetter ASD
Middle Low German: be-hōf n.masc use, purpose, behoof GED
Old High German: giheftan vb to fetter RPN
haban, habēn, hān vb to have GED
habuh, hapuh, habich n hawk ASD/W7
hafan n haven; dish KDW
haft n.masc captivity ASD/RPN
hebīc, heuig adj heavy ASD/W7
heftan vb to seize, bind, arrest ASD
hefti n haft ASD
hevan, heffan, heuen vb to heave ASD/W7
kouf n trade W7
Middle High German: be-huof n.masc purpose, business, behoof GED
habene n haven W7
German: haben vb to have LRC
Habicht n hawk ASD
Hafen n.masc haven ASD
Haff n.neut haff TLL
Haft n.fem imprisonment ASD
Haft n.masc clasp, rivet ASD
heben vb to heave ASD
Heft n haft ASD
heften vb to bind ASD
Kauf n.masc trade, purchase LRC
kaufen vb to buy, purchase, pay for LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hafa, hafað vb to have, keep, hold; accept LRC
hafald n heddle W7
hefja vb to heave LRC
hǫfn n haven KNW
Old Icelandic: haft n bond, chain RPN
hōf n.neut moderation GED
hœfa vb to hit, fit GED
Icelandic: hafa vb to have ASD
haft, hapt n.neut bond, chain ASD
haukr n hawk ASD
hefja vb to heave ASD
hepti n.masc haft; kilt ASD
höfn n.fem haven ASD
Danish: hav n sea TLL
have vb to have TLL
havn n haven ASD
Swedish: hamn n haven TLL
hav n sea TLL
hava vb to have TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *dis-haban vb.wk.III to take, hold GED
*ga-haban vb.wk.III to hold, maintain GED
haban vb.wk.III to have, hold GED
hafjan vb to heave ASD
*haftjan vb to hold fast RPN
Latin: accepto, acceptare vb to accept, receive W7
accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptus vb to receive W7
anticipo, anticipare, anticipavi, anticipatus vb to anticipate W7
capax, capacis adj capable, capacious W7
capio, capere, cēpi, captum vb to take, seize RPN
captio, captionis n.fem seizure W7
captiosus adj deceitful W7
captivus adj captive W7
capto, captare vb.freq to chase W7
captura n.fem capture W7
caupō, caupōnis n.masc huckster, innkeeper, petty tradesman ELD
caupōna n.fem inn, tavern, retail shop ELD
caupōnor, caupōnārī vb.dep to trade/traffic in ELD
-cipare, -cupare vb.inf.sfx to take, seize W7
conceptus n conception TLL
concipio, concipere vb to conceive, take in W7
decipio, decipere vb to catch, deceive W7
excepto, exceptāre vb to take out W7
excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptus vb to except, take out W7
forceps n.masc pliers W7
incipiens, incipientis adj/vb.ptc beginning W7
incipio, incipere vb to begin W7
intercipio, intercipere, intercepi, interceptus vb to intercept, catch in between W7
municeps, municipis n.masc inhabitant of municipality; undertaker of duties W7
municipalis adj of a municipality W7
nuncupo, nuncupare, nuncupavi, nuncupatus vb to name W7
occupo, occupare vb to seize, occupy W7
particeps, participis n.masc participant W7
participo, participare, participavi, participatus vb to share, involve, participate W7
percipio, percipere vb to perceive, seize W7
praeceptum n.neut precept W7
praecipio, praecipere, praecepi, praeceptus vb to take beforehand, instruct W7
recipio, recipere vb to receive W7
recupero, recuperare, recuperavi, recuperatus vb to recuperate W7
suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, susceptus vb to take up W7
Vulgar Latin: captio, captiāre vb to take, seize W7
Late Latin: capabilis adj capable W7
captor n.masc someone who captures W7
nuncupativus adj so-called W7
susceptibilis adj susceptible W7
Medieval Latin: capulum n.neut lasso W7
nuncupativus adj nuncupative W7
Portuguese: excepto prep except TLL
Spanish: cazar vb to chase TLL
excepto prep except TLL
Old French: conceivre vb to conceive W7
deceivre vb to deceive, to disappoint W7
perceivre vb to perceive W7
Old North French: acater vb to buy W7
cable n.masc strong rope W7
cachier vb to hunt W7
caitif adj vile, captive W7
receivre vb to receive W7
Anglo-French: acatour vb to buy W7
Middle French: accepter vb to accept W7
capable adj capable W7
captieux adj captious W7
capture n.fem rapt, capture W7
excepter vb to except W7
occuper vb to occupy W7
recoverer vb to recover W7
French: captif n captive TLL
chasser vb to chase TLL
chétif adj scrawny, wretched TLL
excepté prep except TLL
gaffe n.fem long pointed rod; clumsy action W7
Provençal: gaf n.masc rod, fishing spear W7
Italian: caccia n chase, caccia W2I
cacciatore n hunter; cacciatore AHD
eccetto prep except TLL
Latvian: apkampt, apkampju, apkampu vb to embrace LRC
Russian: kobets n falcon W7
Albanian: kam vb to have IEW
Greek: kōpē n.fem oar W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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