PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: kars- 'to rub, scratch'
Semantic Field(s): to Rub
|English:||card||n||device for raising nap on cloth||AHD/W7|
|cardoon||n||large perennial plant||AHD/W7|
|carminative||adj||expelling gas from alimentary canal||AHD/W7|
|Middle Low German:||harst||n||rake||W7|
|caro, carere||vb||to card||W7|
|Late Latin:||cardo, cardonis||n.fem||thistle||W7|
|French:||carde||n.fem||instrument to spin wool||W7/R1|
|carminatif||adj||that expels gas||W7|
|Old Provençal:||carbo||n.masc||edible cardoon||W7|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|AHD||=||Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)|
|R1||=||Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|