Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kāu-, kəu-   'to hew, cut, hit'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut, to Hit, Strike, Beat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: forhēawan, forhēow, forhēowon, forhēawen vb.str.VII to hew, cut down LRC
hēawan, hēow, hēowon, hēawen vb.str.VII to hew, cut down, kill LRC
hīeg n hay W7
Middle English: hagese n haggis W7
haggen vb to haggle AHD
hewen vb to hew W7
hey n hay W7
howe n hoe W7
English: hacksaw n fine-toothed sawblade stretched in frame AHD
hag n bog, quagmire AHD/W7
haggis n Scottish pudding of heart/lungs/liver AHD/W7
haggle vb to dicker, bargain re: price AHD
hay n grass mowed/cured for fodder AHD/W7
hew vb to strike/cut with heavy instrument AHD/W7
hoe n farm/garden implement AHD/W7
incus n small bone in mammal ear AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hawa, howa vb to hew ASD
Dutch: hooi n hay TLL
Old Saxon: ha(u)wan vb to hew ASD
Old High German: hewi n hay W7
houwa n hoe, mattock W7
houwan vb to hew W7
German: hauen vb to hew ASD
Heu n.neut hay LRC
verhauen vb to cut down ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: högg n stroke, blow W7
Icelandic: höggva vb to hew ASD
Danish: n hay TLL
Swedish: hö n hay TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: hawi n.str.neut hay, grass LRC
Latin: codicelli, codicellorum n.masc notebook LRC
cudo, cudere vb to beat W7
incudo, incudere vb to stamp, strike W7
incus n.fem anvil W7
Lithuanian: kovà n.fem battle, struggle LRC
krūtìnė n.fem breast LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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