Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kau-l-, ku-l-   'hole, hollow; bone'

Semantic Field(s): Hollow, Concave, Bone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: cuaille n post GED
Old English: cāl n.masc cole, wild cole-wort ASD/W7
hol adj/n.neut hollow; hole, den, cavern ASD/GED
hola n.masc hole ASD
*hol-bȳtla n.masc hole-builder LRC
holc, holg, holh n.neut hole, hollow, cavity ASD
Middle English: cole n cole W7
holh n hole, den W7
holw adj hollow W7
English: cauliflower n garden plant AHD/W7
cole n rape, herbaceous plant W7
coleslaw n salad of raw cabbage W7
Crickhollow prop.n Shire locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gentlehobbit n noble/gentle hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hobbit n halfling in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
Holbytla prop.n a.k.a. hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hole n opening into/through something W7
Holfast prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hollow adj/n sunken, concave; cavity W7
Holman prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
lockhole n hobbit lock-up in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hol adj/n hollow; hole, cavity GED
Old Dutch: hol n hole, den, hollow, cavern ASD
Dutch: bloemkool n cauliflower TLL
kool n cole, cabbage TLL
koolsla n coleslaw, lit. cabbage salad W7
Old Saxon: kôl n cole, cabbage KSW
Middle Low German: hol adj/n hollow; hole, cavity GED
Old High German: hol adj/n hollow; hole, cavity GED
holi n hole ASD
kōl, kōlo, kōli n.masc cabbage KDW
German: Blumenkohl n cauliflower TLL
hohl adj hollow ASD
Höhle n hole ASD
Kohl n cabbage TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: holr adj hollow GED
Old Icelandic: hylr n.masc depression, deep place GED
Icelandic: hol n hole, den, hollow, cavern ASD
hola n hole ASD
holr adj hollow ASD
Danish: blomkaal n cauliflower TLL
kaal n cole, cabbage TLL
Swedish: blomkål n cauliflower TLL
kål n cole, cabbage TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: hulundi n cavern ASD
*us-hulon vb.wk.II to hollow out GED/IEW
Latin: caulis, cōlis n.masc stem, stalk; penis GED
Italian: cabolfiore n.masc cauliflower W7
Old Prussian: kaulan n.acc bone GED
Lithuanian: káulas n.masc bone GED/IEW
Latvian: kaũls n bone; stem GED
Greek: καυλός n.masc stem, stalk; shaft GED
Sanskrit: kulyā́ n brook, ditch GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
acc=accusative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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