Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑ēi-bh-   'fast, hasty, violent'

Semantic Field(s): Fast, Swift, Quick


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hæst, hǣst, hēst n.fem fury, violence ASD
hǣst adj violent, vehement, impetuous ASD
hǣst-līce adv violently, vehemently CDC
Middle English: haste n haste CDC
English: haste n speed, swiftness, celerity CDC
hasty adj fast, swift, with haste LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hæst, hast adj hasty, violent CDC
hæst n haste CDC
North Frisian: hæste, haste n haste CDC
Middle Dutch: haest n haste CDC
Dutch: haast n haste CDC
Middle Low German: hast n haste CDC
Old High German: haist, heist adj hasty, violent CDC
Middle High German: he(y)st adj hasty, violent CDC
German: Hast n.fem haste LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: hastarliga adv hastily CDC
hastarligr adj hasty CDC
Icelandic: hastr n haste CDC
höstugr adj harsh CDC
Danish: hast n haste CDC
Old Swedish: hast n haste CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: háifsts n.str.fem fight, strife LRC
Old French: haste n haste CDC
French: hâte n haste CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin

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