Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. kel-, kelə-   'to project, tower up; hill'

Semantic Field(s): Hill, Mountain


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: holm n.masc holm, hill, mount; sea, wave W7/ASD
hyll n.masc/fem hill RPN/ASD
Middle English: columne n column W7
excellen vb to excel W7
hill n hill W7
holm n holm W7
English: colonel n commissioned officer ranking between lieutenant colonel/brigadier general AHD/W7
colonnade n columns at regular intervals, usu. supporting roof AHD/W7
colonnette n small (usu. decorative) column AHD
colophon n inscription at end of book/manuscript AHD/W7
column n supporting pillar AHD/W7
coronel n colonel AHD/W7
culminate vb to reach highest altitude AHD/W7
excel vb to outdo, surpass AHD/W7
Hill prop.n Bombadil's home in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hill n natural land elevation (lower than mountain) AHD/W7
holm n small inland/inshore island AHD/W7
Overhill prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Underhill prop.n Hobbiton family in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Frisian: hel n hill RPN
Middle Dutch: hul, hil(le) n hill RPN
Low German: hul n hill RPN
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hōlmr n holm W7
East Germanic  
Crimean Gothic: *al, ael n rock, stone CGo
Latin: -cellere afx to rise, project W7
collis n.masc hill RPN
colophon n.masc summit, finishing touch W7
columen n.neut top W7
columna n.fem column, pillar W7
culmen, culminis n.neut top W7
culmino, culminare, culminavi, culminatus vb to crown W7
excello, excellere vb to excel, rise out W7
Middle French: colomne n.fem column W7
coronel n.masc leader of column of soldiers W7
French: colonnade n.fem colonnade W7
Old Italian: colonna n.fem column, pillar W7
colonnello n.masc colonel, column of soldiers W7
Italian: colonnato n.masc colonnade W7
Lithuanian: kálnas n hill, mound RPN
keliù, kélti vb to lift, raise RPN
kìlti, kỹla, kìlo vb to arise LRC
Greek: kolophōn n.masc summit, finishing touch W7
κολωνός n.masc heap LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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