Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. kel-, kelə-, klā-, extended klād-   'to hit, hew, cut down'

Semantic Field(s): to Hit, Strike, Beat, to Hew, to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: cleddyf n sword W7
Old English: cler(i)c, clerec n.masc clerk/cleric W7/ASD
healt adj halt W7
hild n.str.fem war, battle LRC
hilde-dēor adj lit. battle-bold LRC
holt n.masc/neut holt ASD
lemp-healt adj limping, halting, limphalt AHD
Middle English: clerk n clerk W7
copen vb to cope W7
coupen vb to coup W7
glaive n glaive W7
halt adj halt W7
hilt n hilt, sword or dagger handle W7
holt n holt W7
lympen vb to fall short W7
English: calamity n deep distress/misery caused by loss/misfortune AHD/W7
clade n organisms sharing features derived from common ancestor AHD
cladoceran n water flea, other small freshwater crustacean AHD
cladode n cladophyll AHD/W7
cladogenesis n evolutionary change/diversification resulting from new taxa branching off AHD
cladogram n treelike diagram with endpoints representing species AHD
clast n rock grain/fragment resulting from larger rock breakage AHD
clastic adj re: fragments of pre-existing rock AHD/W7
claymore n large double-edged broadsword AHD
clematis n vine/herb AHD/W7
cleric n clergy member (below priest) W7
clerical adj re: clerk/clergy W7
clerk n cleric AHD/W7
clone n asexually produced progeny AHD/W7
coloboma n eye anomaly: some loss of vision AHD
colobus n African monkey of genus Colobus AHD
cope vb to fight, strike AHD/W7
coup n sudden, brilliant, usu. successful stroke AHD/W7
coup vb to strike, upset, overturn AHD/W7
Dimholt prop.n black grove in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gladiate adj sword-shaped AHD
gladiator n person engaged in fight, for public entertainment AHD/W7
gladiolus n African plant in iris family AHD/W7
glaive n sword AHD/W7
halt adj lame W7
Hild prop.n Helm's sister in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hilt n handle of sword/dagger AHD/W7
holt n copse, grove, small woods AHD/W7
limphalt adj lame, halt AHD
matilda n bedroll, bundle of possessions AHD
osteoclast n large multinucleate cell in growing bone AHD/W7
phylloclade n flattened stem/branch functioning as leaf AHD/W7
plagioclase n triclinic feldspar AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: halt adj halt ASD
holt n holt, wood, stick ASD
Dutch: hout n holt, wood TLL
Old Saxon: halt adj halt ASD
hild n war, battle ASD
Old High German: halz adj halt ASD
hilt n war, battle ASD
holz n holt; wood W7
German: Holz n.neut holt; wood, lumber LRC
hölzern adj wooden TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: haltr adj halt LRC
Hildr prop.n.fem a Valkyrie LRC
holt n holt KNW
Icelandic: haltr adj halt ASD
hildr n war, battle ASD
holt n holt, wood, coppice; rough stony hill ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: halts adj halt ASD
Latin: calamitas, calamitatis n.fem plea, destruction, calamity W7
clades n.fem destruction W7
clematis n.fem clematis, brushwood W7
colaphus n.masc slap on the cheek W7
gladiator n.masc gladiator, swordsman W7
gladiolus n.masc small sword W7
gladius n.masc glaive W7
incolumis, incolumis, incolume adj unharmed LRC
lābor, lābi, lāpsus vb.dep to slip, slide W7
limbus n.masc border W7
Late Latin: clericus adj clerical, re: clergy W7
New Latin: cladodium n.neut twig W7
gladiolus n.masc a flower W7
phyllocladium n.neut phylloclade W7
Old French: clerc n.masc clerk, priest W7
couper vb to strike, cut W7
Middle French: calamité n.fem plea, calamity W7
couper vb to strike, cut W7
glaive n.masc glaive, javelin W7
French: coup n.masc coup, blow W7
Latvian: pakula n.fem coarse linen LRC
Greek: klados n.masc sprout, branch, twig W7
klan vb to break W7
klastos adj broken W7
klēma, klēmatos n.neut twig W7
klēmatis n.fem clematis, brushwood W7
κληρονομέω vb to inherit LRC
klēros n.masc lot, inheritance, what is gained randomly W7
klōn n.masc twig, slip W7
kolaphos n.masc slap on the cheek W7
plagios adj oblique, sideways W7
Late Greek: klērikos adj clerical, re: clergy W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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