Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. k̑el-   'to hide, conceal'

Semantic Field(s): to Hide, Conceal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: celim vb to hide, conceal GED
cuile n cellar GED
cul n protection GED
fuil n.fem blood W7/IED
Old English: be-hyllan vb.wk to veil, cover GED
cell n religious house W7
heall n.fem hall W7/ASD
helan vb.str to hide, conceal GED
helm n.str.masc helmet ASD
helustr n.masc hiding place GED
heolh n corner of land W7
heolstor n.masc holster, cover, concealment LRC
hulu n.fem hull, husk ASD
medu-heall n.fem mead-hall LRC
Middle English: Apocalipse n Apocalypse AHD
celer n cellar W7
celerer n cellarer W7
cell n cell W7
colour n color W7
concelen vb to conceal W7
halle n hall W7
hell n hell W7
hole, hull n husk, hull AHD/W7
silen vb to seel W7
English: Apocalypse prop.n N.T. book of Revelation W7
apocalypse n revelation re: cosmic cataclysm AHD
Calypso prop.n goddess who detained Odysseus 7 years in Homer: Odyssey LRC
calyptra n archegonium of liverwort/moss AHD/W7
cell n small religious house depending on convent/monastery AHD/W7
cella n inner room/sanctuary of church/temple AHD
cellar n basement AHD/W7
cellarer n (monastery) official in charge of provisions AHD/W7
cilium n eyelash AHD/W7
clandestine adj surreptitious, held in/conducted with secrecy AHD/W7
coleopteran adj re: insect of order Coleoptera AHD
coleus n herb in mint family AHD/W7
color n phenomenon of light/visual perception AHD/W7
conceal vb.trans to hide, prevent disclosure/recognition of AHD/W7
Dernhelm prop.n Eowyn's nom de guerre in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Elfhelm prop.n Rohan marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
eucalyptus n Australian evergreen tree in myrtle family AHD/W7
Halfast prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hall n house/castle (of king/noble) AHD/W7
haugh n low-lying meadow beside river AHD/W7
hell n hades, nether world where dead exist AHD/W7
Helm prop.n 9th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
helmet n covering/enclosing armor headpiece AHD/W7
Helmingas prop.n Westfold men in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hold n cargo deck, lower interior part of ship AHD/W7
holster n (leather) case for pistol AHD/W7
housing n ornamental saddle cover AHD/W7
hull n outer covering of fruit/seed AHD/W7
occult adj secret, not revealed AHD/W7
occult vb to shade, conceal, hide from sight AHD/W7
rathskeller n restaurant patterned after German Ratskeller AHD/W7
saltcellar n small dish for holding/dispensing salt AHD
seel vb.trans to close eyes (of hawk) via thread through eyelids AHD/W7
supercilious adj haughtily contemptuous AHD/W7
Valhalla prop.n Odin's home for war hero souls, lit. Hero Hall (Norse mythology) LRC
Wellinghall prop.n Ent dwelling behind waterfall in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Woodhall prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
British English: colour n color LRC
Scots English: holch n haugh W7
hule n hull, husk ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hela vb.str to hide, conceal GED
hella vb.wk to veil, cover GED
helm n.str.masc helmet GED
Dutch: holster n holster GED
kelder n cellar TLL
Old Saxon: bi-hullean vb.wk to veil, cover GED
halla n hall ASD
helan vb.str to hide, conceal GED
helm n.str.masc helmet GED
Middle Low German: hulse n.fem hull GED
Low German: holstr n.fem case, holster GED
Old High German: hala n hull W7
halla n hall ASD
helan vb.str to hide, conceal GED
helm n.str.masc helmet GED
hulla n.fem hull, veil, cover GED
hullan vb.wk to veil, cover GED
hulsa n.fem hull GED
Middle High German: hǣli n.str.fem concealment GED
hulfter n quiver GED
hulst n.fem case, holster GED
German: Halle n hall ASD
hehlen vb to hide, conceal ASD
Helm n helmet ASD
Holster n.neut holster, quiver LRC
Hülle n.fem sleeve, cover, casing, wrapping LRC
Hülse n hull, husk ASD
Keller n.masc cellar W7
Ratskeller n.masc rathskeller, city-hall basement restaurant W7
Walhalla, Valhalla prop.n Valhalla W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hjálmr n.masc helmet LRC
hǫll n.fem hall LRC
Valhöll, Valhalla prop.n Valhalla W7
Old Icelandic: hjalmr n.masc helmet GED
hulda n.fem hull, veil, cover GED
hylja vb.wk to veil, cover GED
hæli n hiding place GED
Icelandic: hjālm n.fem helm, rudder ASD
hjālmr n helmet ASD
holstr n.masc sheath, case ASD
höll n hall ASD
Danish: kælder n cellar TLL
Swedish: källare n cellar TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *and-huleins n.fem revelation GED
and-huljan vb.wk to reveal GED
*hilms n.masc helmet GED
hulistr n.neut veil GED
huljan vb.wk.I to veil, cover GED
hulundi n.fem cave GED
Latin: cella n.fem small room W7
cellarium n.neut storeroom W7
cēlo, cēlare vb to hide, conceal, keep secret W7
-cilium sfx to hide W7
cilium n.neut eyelid W7
clam adv secretly GED
clandestinus adj in secret W7
color, colōris n.masc hue, tint, color ELD
concelo, concelare vb to hide, conceal W7
occulo, occulere, occului, occultus vb to conceal, cover up W7
occulto, occultāre vb to occult W7
superciliosus adj supercilious W7
supercilium n.neut eyebrow W7
Late Latin: Apocalypsis prop.n Apocalypse AHD
cellariarius n.masc cellarer W7
Medieval Latin: cilio, ciliare vb to seel, close one's eyelids W7
New Latin: calyptra n.fem archegonium of moss/liverwort W7
coleus n.masc sheath W7
eucalyptus n.masc eucalyptus W7
Portuguese: côr n color TLL
Spanish: color n color TLL
Old French: celerer n.masc monastery official in charge of provisions W7
celle n.fem hermit's cell W7
colour n.fem color W7
Anglo-French: celer n.masc storeroom W7
Middle French: clandestin adj.fem clandestine W7
conceler vb to conceal W7
siller vb to blink W7
French: couleur n color TLL
Italian: colore n color TLL
Old Prussian: kelmis n hat GED
Lithuanian: šálmas n helmet GED
Homeric Greek: καλύπτρη n.fem veil LRC
καλύπτω vb to veil, hide, cover, conceal LRC
Καλυψώ prop.n.fem Calypso, lit. concealer LRC
κο(υ)λεόν n.neut sheath, scabbard LRC
Greek: apokaluptein vb to reveal, uncover AHD
apokalupsis n apocalypse, revelation AHD
kalyptos adj covered W7
καλύπτω vb to hide, conceal GED
κέλῡφος n covering GED
koleos n.masc sheath, scabbard W7
Sanskrit: śaraṇás vb.ptc protecting GED
śárma n shelter, protection GED
śālā n room, building GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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