Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ken-   'to pinch, press, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): to Press


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Gaelic: cnō, cnū n nut CDC
Old English: hnecca n.masc neck ASD/W7
hnutu n.fem nut W7
Middle English: nekke n neck W7
nocke n nock W7
nok(e) n nook W7
nowell n newel W7
nute n nut W7
nut(t)e, note n nut CDC
English: neck n part of animal connecting head with body AHD/W7
newel n upright post about which circular staircase steps wind AHD/W7
nock n notch cut in end of bow to hold string AHD/W7
noisette adj made/flavored with hazelnuts AHD
noisette n small round deboned piece of meat AHD
nook n rectangular corner AHD/W7
nougat n fruit/nut confection in sugar paste AHD/W7
nucellus n chief/central part of ovule containing embryo sac AHD/W7
nucleus n small/bright/dense part of comet head AHD/W7
nut n hard-shelled dry fruit/seed with separable rind/shell and interior kernel AHD/W7
nutcracker n tool for cracking nuts LRC
British English: knacker n one who buys/slaughters useless livestoak for meat/hides AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hnecka n neck, nape ASD
Middle Dutch: nocke n tip, summit W7
not n nut CDC
Dutch: nek n neck TLL
noot n nut CDC
Middle Low German: not(e) n nut CDC
Low German: nut(t), nude n nut CDC
Old High German: hnac(h) n nape ASD/W7
(h)nuz n nut ASD/W7
German: Nacken n neck, nape ASD
Nuß n.fem nut CDC
Nußknacker n.masc nutcracker LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hnykkja, hnykkjað vb to pull violently LRC
Icelandic: hnakki n nape of neck, back of head ASD
hnot n.fem nut ASD/CDC
Danish: nöd n nut CDC
Swedish: nöt n nut CDC
Latin: nucella n.fem.dim small nut W7
nucleus n.masc stone, kernel W7
nux, nucis n.fem nut W7
Late Latin: nucalis adj like a nut W7
New Latin: nucellus n.masc.dim central part of an ovule containing the embryo sac W7
nucleus n.masc nucleus of a cell W7
Middle French: nouel n.masc stone of a fruit W7
French: nougat n.masc nougat W7
Old Provençal: noga n.fem nut W7
nogat n.masc nougat W7
Provençal: nougat n.masc nougat W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at