Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. kenk-   'to bind, gird'

Semantic Field(s): to Bind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: precinct n precinct W7
schingles n shingles W7
succinct adj succinct W7
English: cinch n strong girth for pack/saddle AHD/W7
cincture n act of encircling AHD/W7
cingulum n differentiated band/girdle (e.g. of color) AHD/W7
enceinte n fortification enclosing town/castle AHD/W7
precinct n district, territory with definite bounds/functions AHD/W7
shingles n herpes zoster AHD/W7
succinct adj girded AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: ceintuur n belt TLL
Latin: cinctura n.fem girdle W7
cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus vb to gird W7
cingula n.fem girdle W7
cingulum n.neut girdle W7
incingo, incingere vb to surround W7
praecingo, praecingere, praecinxi, praecinctus vb to gird about W7
succingo, succingere, succinxi, succintus vb to gird from below, tuck up W7
Medieval Latin: cingulus n.masc girdle W7
praecinctum n.neut precinct W7
Spanish: cincah n.fem girdle W7
Old French: enceindre vb to surround W7
enceinte n.fem enclosing wall W7
French: enceinte n.fem enclosing wall W7
Sanskrit: kāñcī n girdle W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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