Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ker-, kor-, kr-   '(onomatopoeic: hoarse sound)'

Semantic Field(s): Sound (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: rocas n rook CDC
Old English: hrǣcan vb to spit, hawk W7
hræfn, hrefn, hræmn, hremn n.masc raven CDC/ASD
hrāgra n.masc heron KEW/ASD
hringan vb.wk to ring W7/ASD
hrōc n.masc rook W7/ASD
scrīc, scrēc n shrike, thrush W7/ASD
Middle English: corbel n corbel W7
creken vb to creak, croak IEW
crevice n crevice W7
criket n cricket W7
decrepit adj decrepit W7
heiroun n heron W7
raven, reven, revin n raven CDC
rechen vb to spit, retch W7
ringen vb to ring W7
ro(o)k, roc n rook CDC
scremen vb to scream W7
scrichen vb to screech W7
shrik n shrike W7
shriken vb to shriek, screech W7
English: coracoid adj re: vertebrate process/cartilage bone extending from scapula to(ward) sternum AHD/W7
corbel n architectural member projecting from within wall, supporting weight AHD/W7
corbina n American marine fish AHD/W7
corvine adj re: crow AHD/W7
Corvus prop.n southern constellation, lit. Crow LRC
creak vb to make prolonged grating/squeaking sound IEW/W7
crepitate vb.intrans to crackle, make crackling sound AHD/W7
crevice n fissure, narrow opening caused by split/crack AHD/W7
cricket n leaping orthopterous insect AHD/W7
decrepit adj wasted/weakened by infirmities of age AHD/W7
decrepitate vb to roast to cause/halt crackling AHD/W7
heron n long-necked wading bird W7
raven n glossy black corvine bird AHD/W7
retch vb to make effort to vomit AHD/W7
ring, rang, rung vb.str to sound resonantly AHD/W7
Roäc prop.n dwarf-friendly raven in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
rook n Old World gregarious bird AHD/W7
screak vb.intrans to screech, make harsh shrill noise AHD/W7
scream vb to make sudden loud/sharp cry AHD/W7
screech vb to make high shrill piercing cry AHD/W7
scritch vb to make high shrill piercing cry AHD/W7
shrike n gray/brownish oscine bird AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Dutch: rouca n rook ASD
Middle Dutch: ringen vb to ring W7
roeck n rook CDC
Dutch: rave(n), raaf n raven CDC
reiger n heron TLL
roek n rook CDC
Middle Low German: rave(n) n raven CDC
rōk(e) n rook CDC
Low German: rave n raven CDC
ro(e)k n rook CDC
Old High German: heigaro n heron W7
hruoh n rook CDC
rabo, (h)raban, (h)ram n.masc raven CDC
rachison vb to spit, hawk ASD
scrīan vb to scream W7
Middle High German: rube, rappe, raben, ram(m) n.masc raven CDC
ruoch n rook CDC
German: Rabe n.masc raven ASD
Reiher n heron TLL
schreien vb to scream LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hegri n.masc heron LRC
hrafn, hramn n.masc raven CDC/ICE
hrōkr n.masc rook CDC/ICE
skrækja vb to screak W7
Icelandic: hrafn, hramn n raven ASD
hringja vb to ring ASD
hrókr n rook ASD
hrækja vb to spit, hawk ASD
Danish: hejre n heron TLL
raage n rook CDC
ravn n raven CDC
Old Swedish: rafn, ramn n raven CDC
Swedish: häger n heron TLL
råka n rook CDC
Latin: corvinus adj re: crow/raven W7
corvus n.masc crow, raven W7
crepito, crepitare, crepitavi, crepitatus vb to crackle W7
crepitus, crepitūs n.masc rattling sound W7
crepō, crepāre, crepuī, crepitus vb to crack, rattle W7
decrepitus adj infirm, decrepit W7
increpō, increpāre, increpuī, increpitum vb to scold, rebuke LRC
New Latin: decrepito, decrepitare, decrepitavi, decrepitatus vb to make decrepit W7
Spanish: corbina n.fem acanthopterygian fish W7
corvino adj re: crow/raven W7
Mexican Spanish: corbina n.fem kind of fish W7
Old French: crevace n.fem crevice W7
crever vb to break W7
Middle French: corbel n.masc crow, raven W7
corp n.masc raven W7
crevace n.fem crevice W7
criquet n.masc cricket W7
decrepit adj decrepit W7
hairon n heron W7
French: corbeau n.masc crow, raven LRC
Lithuanian: krankti vb to croak W7/LD
Greek: korakoeidēs adj like a crow/raven W7
korax, korakos n.masc crow, raven W7
κραυγή n.fem shout LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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