Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. ker(ə)-   'to burn'

Semantic Field(s): to Burn, Scorch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: heorþ n.masc hearth ASD/W7
heorð-genēat n.masc lit. hearth-companion LRC
Middle English: carbuncle n carbuncle W7
herth n hearth W7
English: carbon n nonmetallic tetravalent element, the basis of life AHD/W7
carbuncle n red precious stone AHD/W7
ceramic adj re: product (e.g. earthenware) made from nonmetallic mineral by high-temperature firing AHD/W7
crash n coarse fabric used for towels/clothing/draperies AHD/W7
cremate vb.trans to reduce a body to ashes by fire AHD/W7
hearth n brick/stone/cement area fronting fireplace AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: herth, hirth, herd n hearth ASD
Dutch: haard n hearth TLL
Old High German: herd n hearth W7
German: Herd n.masc hearth ASD
Latin: carbo, carbonis n.masc ember, charcoal W7
carbunculus n.masc small coal, carbuncle W7
cremō, cremāre, cremāvī, cremātus vb to cremate, burn up LRC
Middle French: carbuncle n.fem carbuncle W7
French: carbone n.masc charcoal W7
Russian: krashenina n colored linen W7
Greek: keramikos adj of potters W7
keramos n.masc pottery, potter's clay W7
Sanskrit: kūdayāti vb to singe W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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