Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑erə-, k̑rā-   'to cook'

Semantic Field(s): to Cook


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hrēr adj rear, lightly boiled IEW/ASD
hrēran, hrērde, hrēred vb.wk.I to move, stir LRC
Middle English: rere adj rear/rare AHD
English: crater n bowl-shaped depression around volcano orifice AHD/W7
dyscrasia n abnormal body condition AHD/W7
idiosyncrasy n characteristic peculiarity of habit/structure AHD/W7
krater n jar/vase with large round body/small handles/wide mouth AHD/W7
rare adj underdone, not thoroughly cooked AHD/W7
rear adj rare IEW
uproar n state of commotion/excitement/violent disturbance AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: oproer n uproar W7
roer n motion W7
Dutch: oproer n uproar W7
Medieval Latin: dyscrasia n.fem bad mixture of humors W7
New Latin: dyscrasia n.fem abnormal body condition W7
Greek: dyskrasia n.fem dyscrasia W7
idiosynkrasia n.fem idiosyncrasy W7
kerannynai vb to mix W7
krasis n.fem mixture, act of mixing W7
kratēr n.masc mixing vase W7
synkerannynai vb to blend W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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