Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. k̑ēu- : k̑əu-, k̑ū-   'to burn, light (a fire)'

Semantic Field(s): to Burn, Scorch, to Light, Kindle


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: calme n calm W7
enke n ink W7
holocaust n holocaust W7
English: calm n absence of storm/high wind/rough water AHD/W7
caustic adj corrosive, able to destroy/eat away via chemical action AHD/W7
cauterize vb to sear with hot iron W7
cautery n cauterization AHD/W7
encaustic adj re: paint mixed with beeswax AHD/W7
encaustic n paint mixed with beeswax AHD/W7
holocaust n sacrifice consumed by fire AHD/W7
hypocaust n Roman central heating system AHD/W7
ink n fluid colored writing/printing material AHD/W7
British English: cauterise vb to cauterize LRC
Latin: cauma n.fem heat W7
causticus adj burning, caustic W7
cauterium n.neut cautery W7
encausticus adj (painted with) encaustic W7
encaustus vb.ptc burnt within W7
hypocaustum n.neut hypocaust W7
Late Latin: encaustum n.neut encaustic W7
holocaustum n.neut thorough burn, sacrifice/destruction by fire W7
Old French: enke n.fem ink W7
holocauste n.masc holocaust W7
Middle French: calme adj calm, tranquil W7
Old Italian: calma n.masc calm W7
Lithuanian: kulé n.fem smut of plants LD/W7
Greek: enkaiein vb to burn in W7
enkaustikos adj (painted with) encaustic W7
enkaustos adj burning within W7
καίω vb to burn LRC
kauma n.neut burn, burning W7
καυματίζω vb to burn up LRC
kaustikos adj caustic, burning W7
kaustos vb.ptc burnt W7
kautērion n.neut branding iron W7
holokauston n.neut burning of all W7
holokaustos adj burnt whole W7
hypokaiein vb to light fire under W7
hypokauston adj.neut burning under W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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