Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: klā-   'to lade, place, heap up, lay down'

Semantic Field(s): to Put, Place, Set, Lay


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hladan vb.str to lade ASD/W7
hlæst n.neut last, load, burden ASD/W7
Middle English: laden vb to lade W7
last n last W7
English: ballast n heavy mass used to improve stability AHD/W7
lade vb to load, put load/burden in/on AHD/W7
last n unit of weight/quantity/capacity AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hlada vb to lade ASD
hlest n burden, load ASD
Dutch: lade n drawer TLL
Old Saxon: hladan vb to lade ASD
Low German: ballast n ballast W7
Old High German: hladan vb to lade, load W7
hlast n load W7
German: Ballast n.masc ballast LRC
Lade n ark, chest LRC
laden vb to lade ASD
Last n load, burden ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hlaða n barn KNW
hlaða vb to load, pile LRC
Icelandic: hlaða vb to lade, build, pile up ASD
hlass n cart-load ASD
Danish: barlast n ballast W7
lade n barn TLL
last n load, cargo LRC
Swedish: barlast n ballast W7
lada n barn TLL
last n load, cargo SAO
låda n drawer TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: hlaþan vb to load ASD
Old Slavic: klasti vb to lade W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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