Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kleng-, and klenk-   'to bend, wind'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hlanc adj lank W7
hlinc n.masc link; hill, ridge ASD/W7
Middle English: flank n flank W7
lank adj lank W7
link n link W7
English: fianchetto n (a certain) development of chess bishop AHD
flange n rib/rim for strength/guiding/attachment AHD/W7
flank n fleshy part of side between ribs/hip AHD/W7
flanken n meat cut from short ribs AHD
flinch vb.intrans to wince, shrink (as if) from pain AHD/W7
lank adj thin, slender, not well filled-out AHD/W7
link n connecting structure AHD/W7
links sand hills along seashore AHD/W7
Southlinch prop.n Bree pipe-weed in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old High German: (h)lanca n flank, loin, side W7
Middle High German: lanke, lanche n flank, loin, side CDC
German: Flanke n.fem flank, loin, side LRC
Gelenk n joint LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hlekkr n chain W7
Middle French: flenchir vb to bend W7
Italian: fianchetto n.dim little flank AHD
fianco n flank, side, hip AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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