Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: knei-gh-, knei-b-   'to bow, kneel'

Semantic Field(s): to Obey


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hnīgan vb.str to bow W7/ASD
English: connive vb.intrans to let pass, pretend ignorance of, fail to act against AHD/W7
nictate vb to wink AHD/W7
nictitate vb.intrans to wink AHD/W7
nisus n striving, conative state/condition AHD/W7
renitent adj resisting pressure AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: hnīgan vb to bow ASD
Old High German: hnīgan vb to bow W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hníga vb to sink LRC
Icelandic: hnīga vb to sink, bow down, fall gently ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: hneiwan vb to bend down, decline ASD
Latin: conniveo, connivēre vb to connive, close the eyes W7
nicto, nictare, nictavi, nictatus vb to nictate W7
nisus, nisūs n.masc act of leaning down W7
nitor, niti, nisus vb.dep to strive, bear down, lean on W7
renitens, renitentis adj/vb.ptc renitent, opposing W7
renitor, reniti vb.dep to struggle against W7
French: conniver vb to connive, close the eyes W7
rénitent adj renitent, elastic W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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