Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑o-, k̑e-, with the particle k̑e, k̑(e)i-, k̑(i)i̯o-   'this; here'

Semantic Field(s): Near (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cé dem.pron this RPN
Old English: behindan adv/prep behind W7/ASD
hē, hēo, hīe, hit, hyt he, she, it LRC
hēo, hī(e), hȳ they, them LRC
heonan, heonon, heonun, hionan adv hence W7/ASD
hēr adv here LRC
hider adv here, hither LRC
hi(e)ra, heora their(s) LRC
him, hire, him (to) him, her, it LRC
him, heom (to) them LRC
hindan adv from behind W7
hinder adv behind W7
hindrian vb.wk to hinder W7/ASD
hine, hēo, hīe, hit, hyt him, her, it LRC
his, hire, his his, her(s), its LRC
Middle English: behinde, behynd adv/prep behind W7/MEV
he, hye, it he, she, it W7
henne(s) adv hence W7
here adv here W7
hider adv hither W7
him, hire, him (to) him, her, it OED
him, hire, heer, hit him, her, it OED
hind adj hind W7
hindren vb to hinder W7
his, hire, his his, her(s), its OED
hither adv yonder W7
English: behind adv/prep in place/time/situation departed from AHD/W7
cis- dem.pfx on this side AHD/W7
he that male AHD/W7
hence adv away, from this place AHD/W7
her adj re: female as possessor, agent/object of action AHD/W7
here adv at/in this place AHD/W7
him that male AHD
hind adj rear, re: part that follows/is behind AHD/W7
hinder vb to hamper, make progress slow/difficult AHD/W7
hindrance n act/instance/condition of hindering AHD
his adj/ re: male as possessor, agent/object of action AHD/W7
hither adv to this place AHD/W7
it that one AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hīr adv here ASD
Dutch: haar (to) her TLL
haar her TLL
heden adv today TLL
hem him TLL
hen them TLL
het it TLL
hij he, it TLL
hun (to) them TLL
hun their TLL
Old Saxon: bihindan adv from behind ASD
hēr, hier adv here ASD
hinan adv hence ASD
Old High German: hē pron.3.masc he W7
hier, hiar adv here W7/ASD
hin(n)an adv away W7/ASD
hintana adv from behind ASD
hintar, hindar prep behind W7/ASD
hintarian vb to hinder ASD
German: hennen adv hence ASD
herum adv around TLL
heute adv today TLL
hier adv here ASD
hindern vb to hinder ASD
hinten adv from behind ASD
hinter adv behind ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hann dem.pron this one, he RPN
Icelandic: hana her, it TLL
hann he, him, it TLL
hans his, its TLL
hennar her(s), its TLL
henni (to) her, it TLL
hēðra adv hither ASD
hēr adv here ASD
hindra vb to hinder ASD
honum (to) him, it TLL
hun she, it TLL
Danish: ham (to) him TLL
han he, it TLL
hans his TLL
hende (to) her TLL
hendes her TLL
hun she, it TLL
Swedish: han he, it TLL
hans his TLL
henne (to) her TLL
hennes her TLL
hon she, it TLL
honom (to) him TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: hēr adv here LRC
hi- pron.stem this RPN
hidre adv hither, to here W7/GED
hindana adv beyond ASD
hindar adv behind ASD
hiri interj come here! RPN
Latin: cis, ci-, ce-, -ce dem.pron/prep/pfx/sfx this; here; on this side W7
citra adv/prep on this side (of), without LRC
Lithuanian: šìs, šì dem.pron this LRC
šìtas, šità pron this LRC
štaĩ pcl here LRC
Old Church Slavonic: dem.adj/pron this LRC
Greek: ekeinos dem.pron that person W7
*κε- dem.pron.stem that RPN
Hittite: ka-a-aš dem.pron this, that RPN
ki-i dem.pron.nom/acc.neut this, that RPN
Palaic: ka- dem.pron this (one) RPN
ki-i-at adv here RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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