Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑oləmo-s, k̑oləmā   'reed, stalk, stem, culm'

Semantic Field(s): Grass


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: healm n.neut haulm ASD/W7
Middle English: halm n haulm W7
schalme n shawm W7
English: calamari n squid as food AHD
calamite n Paleozoic fossil plant resembling horsetail AHD/W7
calamus n (root/stem of) sweet flag AHD/W7
calumet n ornamented ceremonial Amerindian pipe AHD/W7
caramel n amorphous brittle brown residue from heated sugar AHD/W7
culm n grass stem AHD/W7
haulm n stems/tops of cultivated plants (e.g. peas, beans, potatoes) AHD/W7
shawm n double-reed woodwind instrument AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: halm n haulm W7
German: Halm n haulm ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: hālmr n.masc straw, haulm ASD
Latin: calamus n.masc reed, cane; straw, stalk; calamus ELD/W7
culmus n.masc culm, stalk W7
Late Latin: calamellus n.masc.dim small reed W7
New Latin: Calamites (genus of) fossil plants W7
Portuguese: caramelo n.masc caramel; icicle W7
Spanish: caramelo n.masc caramel W7
Middle French: chalemie n.fem reed, shawm W7
French: caramel n.masc caramel W7
American French: calumet n.masc calumet W7
Greek: κάλᾰμος n.masc reed, cane; straw, stalk; calamus W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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