Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kom   'at, by, cum, with, alongside'

Semantic Field(s): Side


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: com- adv/pfx together, completely RPN
Old English: gecleopian, geclypian vb.wk to call, invoke AHD/ASD
Middle English: co(m)- pfx co(m)- W7
contra- pfx contra- W7
contrarie adj contrary W7
contre- pfx counter- W7
contree n country W7
countren vb to counter W7
encountren vb to encounter W7
epicene adj epicene W7
icleped vb.past.ptc yclept AHD
English: cata-, kata- pfx down TLL
catamenia menses AHD/W7
catapult n ancient military device for hurling missiles AHD/W7
co(m)-, con- pfx with, jointly, together AHD/W7
conquian n Mexican card game: cooncan AHD
contra- pfx against, contrary, contrasting AHD/W7
contrary adj diametrically opposite AHD/W7
contrary n opposite, incompatible fact/condition W7
cooncan n early version of rummy AHD
counter- pfx contrary, different AHD/W7
counter vb to oppose, act in opposition AHD/W7
country n region, indefinite expanse of land AHD/W7
cum prep (along/combined/together) with AHD/W7
encounter vb.trans to meet as enemy/adversary AHD/W7
epicene adj sexless, bisexual, effeminate; hermaphrodite AHD/W7
katabatic adj re: cold downward airflow AHD
Koine prop.n Attic dialect common to Hellenistic world AHD
yclept vb.past.ptc named, called AHD
West Germanic  
German: Katapult n.neut catapult LRC
kontra- pfx contra- LRC
Oscan: kúm prep cum: with RPN
Latin: catapulta n.fem catapult W7
co(m)- adv/pfx with, together RPN
contra adv/prep/pfx against, opposite, facing W7
contrarius adj contrary W7
cum conj/prep when; cum: with W7
Late Latin: incontra adv toward W7
Medieval Latin: contrata contrary, things against W7
incontrō, incontrāre vb to meet, encounter W7
New Latin: catamenia n.fem catamenia W7
Portuguese: com prep cum: with TLL
contra prep against, in opposition to TLL
Spanish: con prep cum: with TLL
contra prep against, in opposition to TLL
American Spanish: conquián n conquian AHD
Old French: com- pfx com- W7
contrée n.fem country W7
encontrer vb to meet, encounter W7
Middle French: catapulte n.fem catapult W7
contraire adj contrary W7
contre prep/pfx against W7
French: contre prep against, in opposition to TLL
Italian: con prep cum: with TLL
contro prep against, in opposition to TLL
Greek: epikoinos adj common, promiscuous W7
κάτα, κατά prep/adv/pfx by, down, under; downwards, completely, according to IEW
katamēnia n.fem catamenia W7
katamēnios adj monthly, lit. by month W7
katapaltēs n.masc catapult W7
κάτω adv down, downward LRC
κοινᾖ adv publicly, in common, in concert LS
κοινός adj shared, common LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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