Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑onkho-   'conch, clam(shell), mussel'

Semantic Field(s): Animal, Fish (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: cokel, cokille n cockle AHD/W7
English: cochlea n spiral-shaped inner ear cavity containing aural nerve endings AHD
cockle n bivalve marine mollusk AHD/W7
conch n large spiral-shelled gastropod mollusk AHD/W7
concha n plain semidome of apse AHD/W7
Latin: concha n.fem mussel, mussel shell W7
conchyl(l)ium n.neut cockle, mussel, shellfish AHD/W7
Vulgar Latin: *cochillia n shell, cockle AHD
Late Latin: concha n.fem conch W7
Old French: coquille n.fem shell, cockle AHD
Italian: conca n.fem apse, semidome W7
concha n.fem conch W7
Greek: κογχη n.fem conch, mussel LS
κογχῠλη n.fem cockle, mussel LS
κογχῠλιον n.neut.dim small cockle/mussel LS
κόχλος n.masc (large) shellfish with spiral shell LS
Sanskrit: śaṅkha n conch shell W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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