Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: koro-s, kori̯o-s   'war, army, warrior'

Semantic Field(s): War, Army, Soldier


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: here n.masc host, army, (enemy) band LRC
here-wulf n.masc warrior, lit. war-wolf ASD
hergian vb.wk to harry ASD/W7
stæl-here n.masc marauding army LRC
Middle English: arang n harangue W7
harien vb to harry W7
herald n herald W7
herberge n harbor W7
herbergere n harbinger W7
horyen vb to hurry W7
English: arriere-ban n king's proclamation calling vassals to arms AHD/W7
Dúnhere prop.n lord of Harrowdale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
harangue n speech addressed to public assembly AHD/W7
harbinger n person sent ahead to arrange lodging AHD/W7
harbor n refuge, place of security/comfort AHD/W7
harry vb.trans to make pillaging/destructive raid AHD/W7
herald n official making announcements at tournament of arms AHD/W7
Herefara prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Herubrand prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Herugrim prop.n Theoden's sword in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hurry vb to carry/cause to go with haste AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: here, hiri n host, army ASD
Dutch: herberg n inn TLL
Old Saxon: heri n host, army ASD
Old High German: heri, hari n host, army ASD/W7
heriberga n hostelry, army encampment W7
heriōn, harion vb to harry, lay waste ASD/W7
German: Heer n host, army ASD
Herberge n.fem hostel, harborage LRC
verheeren vb to harry ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: herr n.masc harrier, destroyer LRC
Icelandic: herja vb to harry ASD
herjask vb to wage war on one another ASD
herr n host, army ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: harjis n.str.masc host, army LRC
Old French: ariere-ban n arriere-ban AHD
herban n military service ban (summons) AHD
herbergere n.fem host, harbinger W7
Middle French: arenge n.fem harangue W7
hiraut n.masc herald W7
French: arrière-ban n arriere-ban W7
havre n haven, harbor TLL
Old Italian: aringa n.fem harangue W7
Lithuanian: kãras n.masc war LRC
Greek: koiranos n.masc commander W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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