Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kost-   'leg, bone, costa'

Semantic Field(s): Leg, Bone, Rib


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: cost n coast W7
costard n costard AHD
costrel n costrel W7
English: accost vb.trans to address, approach, speak (first) to AHD/W7
coast n seashore; border, frontier AHD/W7
coastal adj re: coast LRC
costa, costae n rib, riblike part AHD
costal adj re: ribs AHD/W7
costard n large English cooking apple AHD/W7
costrel n leather/wooden/earthenware container for liquids AHD/W7
cuesta n hill/ridge with steep slope on one side, gentle slope on other AHD/W7
cutlet n small slice of broiled/fried meat AHD/W7
intercostal adj situated between ribs AHD/W7
sternocostal adj re: ribs/sternum AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: kust n coast TLL
German: Kotelett n.neut cutlet, chop (of meat) LRC
Küste n.fem coast LRC
North Germanic  
Danish: kyst n coast TLL
Swedish: kyste n coast TLL
Latin: costa, costae n.fem side, costa RPN
Medieval Latin: accosto, accostare vb to adjoin AHD
New Latin: intercostalis adj intercostal W7
Portuguese: costa n coast TLL
Spanish: costa n coast TLL
cuesta n.fem steep terrain W7
Old French: accoster vb to accost AHD
coste n.fem side, costa W7
costellette n.fem.dim cutlet W7
Old North French: costard n costard AHD
Middle French: accoster vb to accost W7
coste n.fem side, costa W7
costerel n.masc costrel W7
costier adj costal; coastal W7
French: accoster vb to accost AHD
côte n coast TLL
côtelette n.fem cutlet, chop (of meat) W7
Italian: costa n coast TLL
Polish: kość n bone RPN
Czech: kost n bone RPN
Serbo-Croatian: k̑ost n rib RPN
Old Church Slavonic: kostь n.fem bone LRC
Bulgarian: kost n bone RPN
Macedonian Slavic: koska n bone RPN
Russian: kost’ n bone RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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