Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: krā[u]- : krəu- : krū̆-   'to heap up, pile together; heap; roof'

Semantic Field(s): to Gather, Collect, Roof


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hyrst n.fem armor, ornament LRC
Middle English: grotesque adj grotesque W7
English: crypt n vault/chamber partly/wholly underground AHD/W7
cryptic adj secret, occult AHD/W7
decrypt vb to decode, decipher AHD
encrypt vb to encode, put into cipher AHD
grotesque adj bizarre, fanciful, fantastic AHD/W7
grotesque n fanciful/fantastic decorative art AHD/W7
grotto n cave AHD/W7
krypton n colorless inert gas AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: hrusti n armor, equipment, ornament, implement ASD
German: grotesk adj grotesque LRC
Grotte n.fem grotto LRC
Krypta n.fem crypt LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hreysar n heap of stones W7
Latin: crypta n.fem crypt, cavern W7
Late Latin: crypticus adj cryptic W7
Middle French: grotesque adj grotesque W7
Old Italian: grotesque adj grotesque W7
grotta n.fem grotto W7
grottesco adj re: grotto W7
Lithuanian: krauti vb to pile up LD/W7
Greek: kryptein vb to hide W7
kryptē n.fem crypt, hidden room W7
kryptikos adj cryptic W7
kryptos adj hidden W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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