Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. kreu-, kreuə- : krū-, kreus-, krus-   'raw flesh, thick/clotting blood; ice, crust'

Semantic Field(s): Flesh, Blood, Ice, Frost


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: crú n blood RPN
Old English: hrēaw, hrǣw adj raw ASD/RPN
hrūse n.fem earth, ground LRC
Middle English: cristal n crystal W7
cristallin adj crystalline W7
crude adj crude W7
cruel adj cruel W7
crust n crust W7
raw adj raw W7
English: creatine n white crystalline nitrogenous substance AHD/W7
creodont n extinct carnivorous mammal, lit. flesh-tooth AHD
crouton n small crisp cube of fried/toasted bread AHD/W7
crude adj existing in natural state, unaltered by cooking/processing AHD/W7
cruel adj disposed to inflict pain AHD/W7
crust n hardened surface/exterior (e.g. of bread) AHD/W7
crustacean n aquatic arthropod (e.g. crab, shrimp, lobster, barnacle) AHD/W7
crustaceous adj re: hard shell/crust AHD
crustose adj re: thin crusty embedded lichen AHD
crymotherapy n therapeutic use of cold AHD/W7
crystal n quartz that is (nearly) transparent/(nearly) colorless AHD/W7
crystalline adj made/composed of crystal(s) AHD/W7
ecru n beige AHD/W7
encrust vb to line/cover/overlay with crust AHD/W7
Kristallnacht prop.n Night of Broken Glass: Nazi anti-Jewish pogrom AHD
pancreas n compound racemose vertebrate gland AHD/W7
raw adj uncooked AHD/W7
recrudesce vb.intrans to break out/become active again AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: raauw adj raw ASD
Old Saxon: hrāo adj raw RPN
Old High German: (h)rō adj raw W7
(h)roso n ice, crust RPN
rou adj raw ASD
German: Kristall n.masc crystal LRC
Kristallnacht prop.n.fem Kristallnacht, lit. crystal night AHD
Kruste n.fem crust LRC
roh adj raw ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: hrár adj raw RPN
hrjósa vb to shake, shudder RPN
hrúðr n crust, scab on sore RPN
Icelandic: hrár adj raw ASD
Danish: raa adj raw ASD
Swedish: rå adj raw ASD
Latin: crudelis, crudele adj cruel, wretched W7
crudesco, crudescere vb to become hard, violent W7
crūdus adj raw, uncooked, bleeding RPN
cruentus adj bloody RPN
cruor, cruris n.masc gore, blood (flowing from wound) RPN
crusta n.fem crust, rind, bark RPN
crystallinus adj of crystals W7
crystallum n.neut ice, crystal W7
incrusto, incrustare vb to encrust W7
recrudesco, recrudescere vb to become raw again W7
New Latin: pancreas n.fem organ in abdomen W7
Old French: cristal n.masc crystal W7
cruel adj cruel, wretched W7
escru adj ecru W7
Middle French: cristallin adj of crystal W7
crouste n.fem crust W7
French: croûte n.fem crust W7
croûton n.masc crouton W7
cru adj raw W7
écru adj unbleached W7
Lithuanian: kraũjas n blood RPN
kruvinà, krùvinas adj bloody LRC
kùrti, kùria, kūrė vb to create LRC
Latvian: kruvesis n rough frozen dung in road RPN
Old Church Slavonic: krъvь n blood RPN
Greek: κρέας n flesh, meat RPN
κρυερός adj icy, chilling RPN
κρῡμός n frost, icy cold RPN
κρυόεις adj chilling, ice-cold RPN
κρύος adj/n ice-cold; chill, frost RPN
krystallinos adj crystalline W7
κρύσταλλος n (clear) ice, crystal RPN
pankreas n.neut pancreas W7
Avestan: xrūra- adj bloody, terrible LRC
Sanskrit: kravíṣ n.neut flesh, raw meat RPN
krūrá-ḥ adj/n raw, wounded; blood RPN
Tocharian B: krośce adj cold RPN
Tocharian A: krośśäṁ cold(ness) RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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