PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: 3. kreu-, krou-s- 'to push, hit, break'
|Old English:||hrēowan||vb.str||to rue||W7/ASD|
|Middle English:||ruen||vb||to rue||W7|
|English:||anacrusis||n||leading syllable(s) not part of metrical pattern in line of poetry||AHD/W7|
|rue||vb||to feel regret/remorse/penitence||AHD/W7|
|ruth||n||compassion for misery of another||AHD/W7|
|Old Saxon:||hrewan||vb||to rue||ASD|
|hrōrian||vb||to move, stir||ASD|
|Old High German:||(h)riuwan||vb||to regret||W7/ASD|
|hruorian||vb||to move, stir||ASD|
|rühren||vb||to move, stir||ASD|
|Icelandic:||hryggja, hryggwa||vb||to grieve, distress||ASD|
|hræra||vb||to move, stir||ASD|
|New Latin:||anacrusis||n.fem||beginning of a song||W7|
|Lithuanian:||krušti||vb||to stamp, crush, grind||W7|
|Greek:||anakrouein||vb||to begin a song||W7|
|anakrousis||n.fem||beginning of a song||W7|
|krouein||vb||to strike, beat||W7|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|AHD||=||Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)|
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|