Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. kreu-, krou-s-   'to push, hit, break'

Semantic Field(s): to Push, Shove, to Hit, Strike, Beat, to Break


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hrēowan vb.str to rue ASD/W7
Middle English: ruen vb to rue W7
ruthe n ruth W7
English: anacrusis n leading syllable(s) not part of metrical pattern in line of poetry AHD/W7
rue vb to feel regret/remorse/penitence AHD/W7
ruth n compassion for misery of another AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: hrewan vb to rue ASD
hrōrian vb to move, stir ASD
Old High German: (h)riuwan vb to regret ASD/W7
hruorian vb to move, stir ASD
German: reuen vb to rue ASD
rühren vb to move, stir ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: hryggja, hryggwa vb to grieve, distress ASD
hræra vb to move, stir ASD
New Latin: anacrusis n.fem beginning of a song W7
Lithuanian: krušti vb to stamp, crush, grind W7
Greek: anakrouein vb to begin a song W7
anakrousis n.fem beginning of a song W7
krouein vb to strike, beat W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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