Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kþē(i)-, kþə(i)-   'to gain, acquire, possess'

Semantic Field(s): to Get, Obtain, to Own, Possess


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: chek, chak n check OED
chekmat(e) n checkmate OED
ches n chess W7
escheker n exchequer W7
satrap(e) n satrap W7
English: check n chess move attacking opponent's king AHD
checkmate n win/loss in chess game, lit. king [is] dead AHD/W7
chess n 2-player board game (from India via Persia) LRC
exchequer n medieval English office/department in charge of state revenue AHD/W7
Kshatriya prop.n warrior/military caste, 2nd-highest of 4 in traditional Indian society LRC
padishah n shah of Persia CDC
satrap n provincial governor AHD/W7
shah n king, ruler of a land AHD/CDC
Xerxes prop.n Persian king of Achaemenid dynasty AHD
West Germanic  
Dutch: skaak n check; chess OED
Middle High German: schāch n check OED
German: Satrap n.masc satrap LRC
Schach n.neut check; chess OED
North Germanic  
Icelandic: skák n check; chess OED
Danish: skak n check; chess OED
Swedish: schack n check; chess OED
Latin: satrapēs n.masc satrap W7
Medieval Latin: scacci chess OED
Portuguese: xaque n check; shah OED
Old Spanish: xaque n check OED
xaquimate n checkmate OED
Spanish: jaque n check OED
Old French: eschec, eschek, escheq n check OED
eschequier n.masc chessboard; counting table W7
esches chess W7
Old North French: eskec, escac n check OED
Anglo-French: escheker n.masc chessboard; counting table W7
French: échec n.masc check; chess piece LRC
échecs chess; chess set OED
Provençal: escac n check OED
escacos chess OED
Italian: scacchi chess OED
scacco n check OED
scaccomatto n checkmate OED
Greek: satrapēs n.masc satrap W7
Old Persian: khshathra n realm, province AHD
khshathra-pāvā n lit. province-protector AHD
*khshaya vb to rule over AHD
khshayārshan- vb.ptc lit. ruling over men AHD
Persian: shāh n shah; chess king OED
Sanskrit: kṣatriya n upper-caste Hindu assigned to governing/military occupation W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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