Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ku̯at(h)-   'to ferment, become sour'

Semantic Field(s): Sour, Acidic


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: cais n cheese ASD
Gaelic: caise n cheese ASD
Manx: caashey n.masc cheese ASD
Cornish: caus, ces, cos n.masc cheese ASD
Welsh: caws n.masc cheese ASD
Old English: cēse, cȳse n.masc cheese AHD/W7
hwaþerian vb to foam W7
Middle English: chese n cheese AHD
English: cheese n ripened molded curd separated from whey AHD/W7
kvass n beer of low alcoholic content AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: kise, tzise n.masc cheese ASD
Frisian: tzys n cheese ASD
Dutch: kaas n.fem cheese ASD
Old Saxon: kisi n.masc cheese ASD
Old High German: kāsi n.masc cheese W7
Middle High German: kæse n.masc cheese ASD
German: Käse n.masc cheese LRC
Latin: cāseus, cāsei n.masc cheese AHD
Old Russian: kvasŭ n kvass AHD
Russian: kvas n kvass W7
Sanskrit: kvathati vb to boil W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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