Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. k̑uei-, extended kuei-d-, kuei-s-, kuei-t-   'to shine; white'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten, White


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hwǣte n wheat W7
hwīt adj white W7/ASD
Middle English: whete n wheat W7
white adj/n white W7
whiten vb to whiten W7
whiting n whiting W7
English: bismuth n heavy brittle grayish white trivalent metal AHD/W7
edelweiss n small perennial composite herb AHD/W7
wheat n cereal grain yielding fine white flour AHD/W7
white adj/n reflecting all light/colors; brightest color AHD/W7
whiten vb.trans to make white AHD/W7
Whiteskins a.k.a. Rohirrim in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Whitfoot prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
whiting n marine food fish AHD/W7
Whitwell prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
witloof n chicory AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hwīt adj white ASD
Middle Dutch: wit adj white W7
witinc n whiting W7
Dutch: wit adj white W7
witloof n chicory W7
Old Saxon: hwīt adj white ASD
Old High German: (h)wīz adj white W7
weiz(z)i n wheat W7/KDW
Middle High German: wise n meadow AHD
German: Edelweiss n.neut edelweiss W7
weiss adj white W7
Weizen n.masc wheat LRC
Wiese n.fem meadow AHD
Wismut n.neut bismuth W7
Wittling n.masc whiting LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hveiti n wheat KNW
hvítr adj white, shining LRC
Icelandic: hvítr adj white ASD
Danish: hvede n wheat TLL
Swedish: hvete n wheat TLL
vit adj white TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: ƕaiteis n wheat KGW
ƕeits adj white LRC
Crimean Gothic: *wichtgata, vvichtgata adj white CGo
Medieval Latin: wismutum n bismuth AHD
New Latin: bisemūtum n bismuth AHD
Lithuanian: šviesà n.fem light LRC
Old Church Slavonic: světъ n.masc light LRC
Sanskrit: śveta adj white W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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