Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑u̯on-, k̑un-   'hound, dog'

Semantic Field(s): Dog


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cú n hound, dog LRC
Breton: koun n hound LRC
Welsh: ci n hound, dog AHD
Old English: grīghund n.masc greyhound W7
hund n.masc hound, dog W7
Middle English: grehound n greyhound W7
hound n hound, dog W7
kenel n kennel W7
English: canaille n rabble, riffraff AHD/W7
canary n lively court dance of 16th century AHD/W7
canicular adj re: Dog Star AHD/W7
canine adj re: dogs (incl. foxes, wolves, jackals) AHD/W7
chenille n silk/wool/cotton yarn with protruding pile AHD/W7
corgi n Welsh fox-like dog breed, lit. dwarf-dog AHD
cynic n philosopher: sole good is in virtue, whose essence is self-control/independence AHD/W7
cynical adj peevish, captious, re: cynic W9
dachshund n small dog (breed): long body, short legs, long drooping ears AHD/W7
greyhound n tall slender dog (breed): swift, graceful, smooth-coated AHD/W7
hound n hunting dog (breed) AHD/W7
keeshond n grayish-black dog (breed) AHD
kennel n shelter for dog(s) AHD/W7
Procyon prop.n brightest star in constellation Canis Minor LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hund n hound, dog ASD
Dutch: hond n hound, dog TLL
keeshond n keeshond AHD
Old Saxon: hund n hound, dog ASD
Old High German: hunt n.masc hound, dog W7
German: Dachshund n.masc dachshund, lit. badger-hound W7
Hund n.masc hound, dog W7
Hündin n.fem bitch: female dog TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hund n hound W7
Icelandic: hundr n hound, dog ASD
Danish: hund n hound, dog TLL
Swedish: hund n hound, dog LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: hunds n.masc hound, dog LRC
Latin: canicula n.fem dog, the Dog-Star W7
caninus adj re: dog W7
canis n.masc hound, dog W7
cynicus adj/n.masc cynic(al), lit. re: dog W7
Procyon prop.n.masc Procyon W7
Vulgar Latin: canile adj re: dog W7
Old Spanish: canario n.masc canary, small finch W7
Middle French: canarie n.fem canary W7
cynique adj cynical W7
French: canaille n.fem wicked man W7
chenille n.fem caterpillar W7
chien n hound, dog TLL
Italian: canaglia n.fem canaille CID/W7
cane n.masc hound, dog W7
Lithuanian: šuõ n dog LRC
Greek: kynikos adj cynical, lit. re: dog W7
κύων n.masc hound, dog LRC
Prokyōn prop.n.masc Procyon W7
Hieroglyphic Luwian: sù-wa-nà-i n dog LRC
Hittite: kun- n hound, dog LRC
Armenian: šun, šan n dog LRC
Avestan: span- n dog LRC
Sanskrit: ś(u)vā́ n dog LRC
Tocharian B: ku, kwem n hound, dog LRC
Tocharian A: ku, kon n hound, dog LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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