Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ke   '(enclitic) and'

Semantic Field(s): to Join, Unite


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: -ch enc.pcl any RPN
English: sesqui- pfx one and a half AHD/W7
sesquipedal adj sesquipedalian AHD
sesquipedalian adj one and a half feet tall/long AHD
ubiquity n omnipresence, simultaneous presence everywhere AHD/W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: ƕa-h pron each, every, etc. RPN
ni-h adv not RPN
-(u)h enc.pcl and, but, now, then, therefore GED
Oscan: ne-p, ni-p conj and not RPN
Umbrian: nei-p, ni-p conj and not RPN
Latin: -c enc.pcl each, every, everyone RPN
ne-c, ne-que conj and not RPN
-que enc.conj/pcl and LRC
sesqui- pfx one and a half W7
ubique adv everywhere W7
Greek: καί conj and, also RPN
τε enc.conj and LRC
Luwian: -ku(-wa) enc.conj also, furthermore RPN
Hittite: -k(k)u enc.conj and, now, even RPN
kuišku indef.pron someone RPN
Palaic: -ku enc.conj and RPN
Lydian: -k enc.conj and, also RPN
Classical Armenian: inč' indef.adj/n some, any; a thing LRC
Old Persian: -čā enc.conj and RPN
Avestan: -ča enc.conj and RPN
Sanskrit: ca enc.conj and, also, as well as RPN
Pali: ca enc.conj and, then, now RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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