Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei-   '(indefinite/interrogative pronoun)'

Semantic Field(s): to Ask, Request


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cia int.pron who? LRC
cía int.pron who? RPN
Breton: piou int.pron who? RPN
Cornish: pyw int.pron who? RPN
Old Welsh: pa int.pron what? LRC
Welsh: pwy int.pron who? RPN
Old English: ǣghwæðer adj/pron both, each, every one, either ASD/W7
hū conj how LRC
hwā, hwæt int.pron who? what? LRC
hwǣr, hwar adv/conj where ASD
hwæt-hwega, hwæt-hwegu indef.pron/adv something, somewhat, a little ASD
hwæt-hwigu, hwæt-hugu indef.pron/adv something, somewhat, a little ASD
hwæðer, hweðer conj if, either, whether W7
hwæðer pron whether ASD
hwæð(e)re, hweðre conj but, yet, however ASD
hwanon(e), hwanan, hwonan adv whence ASD/W7
hwider adv whither W7
hwilc, hwelc, hwylc adj/pron which ASD/W7
hwonne, hwenne adv when W7
hwȳ, hwī adv/conj why ASD/W7
nāhwæðer, nā(w)ðer, nōðer pron neither ASD/W7
Middle English: aywhere adv on all sides MEV
cotidian adj quotidian W7
either, aither, ayþer adj/pron both, either MEV/W7
how adv how W7
nauther, neither, nother pron neither W7
neutre adj neuter W7
qualite n quality W7
quantite n quantity W7
quocient n quotient W7
quorum n quorum W7
what adj/adv/pron what W7
when adv/conj when W7
whenne(s) adv whence W7
where adv wherefore W7
whether conj/pron whether W7
which adj which W7
whither adv whither W7
who pron who W7
whos adj whose W7
why adv why W7
English: aliquot adj contained in another an integral number of times AHD/W7
conquian n Mexican card game: cooncan AHD
cooncan n early version of rummy AHD
cue n word/phrase/stage business (in play) signalling speech/action AHD/W7
either adj/pron each, one or another (of two) AHD/W7
how adv in what way/manner AHD/W7
kickshaw n delicacy, fancy food AHD
neither pron not one or the other (of two) AHD/W7
neuter adj re: gender neither masculine nor feminine AHD/W7
posology n study of drug/medicine dosages AHD
qu n [abbr. for] cue AHD/W7
qua adv as, in capacity/character of AHD/W7
quality n nature, peculiar/essential character AHD/W7
quantity n (indefinite) amount/number AHD/W7
quibble n petty distinction, irrelevant objection AHD
quibble vb to evade truth/importance via trivialities AHD
quiddity n quibble, trifling point AHD/W7
quidnunc n busybody, newsmonger, nosy person AHD
quip n gibe, clever taunting remark AHD/W7
quippy n quip AHD/W7
quondam adj sometime, former AHD/W7
quorum n number that, when duly assembled, are legally competent to conduct business AHD/W7
quote vb.wk to speak/write words spoken/written by another AHD/W7
quotidian adj occurring daily AHD/W7
quotient n result of dividing one number by another AHD/W7
what adv.obs why AHD/W7
what int.adj/pron (inquiry re:) identity of object/matter AHD/W7
when adv at what time AHD/W7
when conj while/at/during a time AHD/W7
whence adv from what place/source/cause AHD/W7
where adv at/in/to what place AHD/W7
whether conj [introduces alternatives] AHD/W7
whether pron.arch which of two AHD/W7
which adj re: what one/ones in group AHD/W7
whither adv to what place AHD/W7
who pron.nom what/which person(s) AHD/W7
whom pron.obj who AHD/W7
whose adj re: whom/which AHD/W7
why adv for what cause/reason/purpose AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hu, ho adv how ASD
hwā int.pron who? RPN
hweder conj whether ASD
hwēr adv where ASD
hwet int.pron what? ASD
Dutch: hoe conj how TLL
hoewel conj although TLL
terwijl conj while TLL
waar conj where TLL
wanneer conj when TLL
Old Saxon: hwanan adv whence ASD
hwār adv where ASD
hwat int.pron what? ASD
hwē, hwie int.pron who? RPN
hweðar conj whether ASD
hwilīk pron which ASD
hwō adv how ASD
Old High German: hwanān(a) adv whence ASD/W7
hwanne adv/conj when W7
hwār adv where W7
(h)waz int.adj/pron what? LRC
(h)wedar pron whether TLL/W7
(h)wer int.pron who? W7
hwuo, hweō adv how ASD/W7
wilīh, hwelīh adj which, of what kind ASD/W7
German: entweder conj either TLL
wannen adv whence ASD
was int.pron what? ASD
weder conj neither TLL
welcher pron which ASD
wer int.pron who? ASD
wie adv how ASD
wo adv/conj where; when TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hvar adv where; everywhere LRC
hverr adj/pron who, which, what; each, every LRC
hví int.adv why? LRC
hwelīk, hwe(l)k, hulk pron which ASD
Old Icelandic: hvat int.adj/pron what? LRC
hvé int.adv how? RPN
Icelandic: hvar adv where ASD
hvar int.pron who? ASD
hvat int.pron what? ASD
hvárt conj whether ASD
hvílíkr pron which ASD
Old Danish: hwa int.pron who? RPN
Danish: hvis conj if TLL
hvor adv/conj where TLL
hvordan conj how TLL
Old Swedish: ho int.pron who? RPN
Swedish: hur conj how TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: áinshun indef.pron [always with negative] (no) one, (n)one LRC
hwē adv how ASD
hwēleiks, hwileiks pron which ASD
ƕa int.adv why? LRC
ƕan adv when? whenever, at any time RPN
ƕar int.adv where? RPN
ƕarjis int.adj which? RPN
ƕas, ƕō int.pron who? what? LRC
ƕaþ int.adv whereto? RPN
Latin: aliquot adj/pron some, several W7
cotidianus adj of every day W7
neuter adj.pron neutral, none of two W7
qua adv by, by means of W7
qualis int/rel.pron of what kind W7
qualitas, qualitatis n.fem quality, kind W7
quam adv than, how, as LRC
quando adv/conj ever, at some time; when LRC
quantitas, quantitatis n.fem quantity W7
quantum adv as much LRC
quantus int.pron how much, how large W7
qui, qua(e), quod indef.pron some, any, who LRC
qui, quae, quod int/rel.pron who, which, what LRC
quia conj because LRC
quippe adv indeed, to be sure (often ironical) W7
quis, quis, quid int/indef.pron who? what? someone, anything LRC
quisque, quaeque, quodque indef.pron everyone LRC
quisquis, quaeque, quicquid indef.pron whoever, whatever LRC
quo adv what LRC
quod conj that, because LRC
quom, cum conj when, with LRC
quondam adv sometimes, at a certain time W7
quot adj/adv how many RPN
quotidianus adv of every day W7
quotidie adv every day W7
quotiens adj/vb.ptc how many times W7
quotus int.adj of what number/quantity W7
sicut adv as, like LRC
unde adv from whence LRC
undecumque adv from every side LRC
undique adv from every quarter LRC
ut adv/conj as, where; that, so that LRC
uter, utra, utrum pron which of two LRC
uti conj that, so that LRC
utique adv certainly LRC
Medieval Latin: aliquotus adj some W7
quidditas n.fem essence, whatness W7
quotō, quotāre vb to number references, mark the number of W7
Portuguese: como conj as, how TLL
dove conj where TLL
onde conj where TLL
quando conj when TLL
que conj that; than TLL
Spanish: como conj as, how TLL
cotidiano adj daily TLL
cuando conj when TLL
donde conj where TLL
que conj that; than TLL
American Spanish: conquián n conquian AHD
Old French: qualité n.fem quality W7
quantité n.fem quantity W7
Middle French: cotidian adj daily W7
neutre adj neuter W7
French: comme conj as TLL
comment conj how TLL
où conj where TLL
quand conj when TLL
que conj that; than TLL
quotidien adj daily TLL
Italian: chè conj that; than TLL
come conj as, how TLL
cotidiano adj daily TLL
quando conj when TLL
Lithuanian: kaĩp adv/conj/pcl how, as, like LRC
kàs pron who, which, what LRC
kur̃ adv where, whither RPN
kurìs, kurì pron/conj who, which LRC
Latvian: kāda pron someone, anyone LRC
kas pron that, which LRC
katrs pron each, every LRC
kur adv where LRC
Old Church Slavonic: kogda int.adv when; sometime LRC
kъto int/indef.pron who? someone LRC
čьto int.pron what? LRC
Albanian: kë int.pron who? LRC
kur adv as, when IEW
si conj as LRC
Homeric Greek: πότερος adj/pron which; whether LS
Greek: κώ, πῶ adv yet LRC
μήποτε conj lest LRC
ὅπως adv so that LRC
ὅσος rel.pron as many LRC
ὅστις rel.pron whoever, whatever LRC
οὐδέποτε adv never LRC
οὐδέπω adv not yet LRC
πόθεν adv from where LRC
πόσος int.pron how much? how many? of what quantity? RPN
ποτέ adv ever, at some time LRC
ποῦ, ὅπου adv where LRC
που adv perhaps, anywhere LRC
πῶς int.pcl how LRC
τι adv howsoever, in any way LRC
τίς, τί int.pron who? what? LRC
τὶς indef.pron someone, something LRC
Luwian: ku-(i-)iš int.pron who? RPN
ku-wa-(a-)ti(-in) int.adv how? RPN
ku-wa-at-ti rel.adv where, whence RPN
Lycian: ti int/rel.pron who RPN
Hittite: ku-iš, ku-in, ku-it int.pron who? RPN
ku-(u-)wa-at int.adv why? RPN
ku-wa-(a-)pí int.adv when? where? whither? RPN
ku-wa-(at-)tin int.adv where? whither? RPN
Palaic: kuiš int/rel.pron who RPN
Lydian: qis rel.pron who RPN
Classical Armenian: zi conj for; that; because LRC
omn adj/pron some, certain LRC
or rel.pron who, what, which LRC
kʿan conj than LRC
Armenian: o int.pron who? LRC
kʰani int.pron how many? RPN
Old Persian: ka- int.indef.pron.stem who RPN
Avestan: čaiti int.pron how many? RPN
cit int/indef.pron what LRC
ka- int/indef.pron.stem who RPN
Sanskrit: ká-ḥ, kā́, kim int.pron who? RPN
káti int.adj how many? RPN
kútra int.adv where? RPN
cid conj even, also RPN
Tocharian B: kuce conj because; (so) that RPN
kuse, kuce int/rel.pron who, whoever, the one who RPN
Tocharian A: kus, kuc int.pron who? which? what? RPN
kusne, kucne rel.pron who, which RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
int=interrogative (mood)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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