Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. lā-   'to be hidden, covered, latent'

Semantic Field(s): to Hide, Conceal, to Cover


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: alastor n nemesis, relentless avenging spirit AHD/OED
lanthanum n soft white malleable trivalent rare-earth metal AHD/W7
latent adj present but inactive/invisible AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: latent adj latent LRC
Latin: latens, latentis vb.pres.ptc latent, lying hidden W7
lateo, latēre vb to lie hidden W7
New Latin: lanthanum n.neut lanthanum W7
Homeric Greek: ἄλαστος adj ceaseless, eternal, unforgettable LRC
λανθάνω vb to escape notice, cause to forget LRC
λήθω vb to escape notice, cause to forget LRC
Greek: ἀλάστωρ n alastor, avenging deity OED
ἀληθεία n.fem truth LRC
ἀληθῶς adv really, truly LRC
λάθρα adv secretly LRC
λήθη n.fem forgetting LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at