Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: lē̆b-, lō̆b-, lāb-, leb-   'lip; to slump, hang down slackly'

Semantic Field(s): Lip, to Drop


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gelimplic adj suitable LRC
læppa n.wk.masc lap W7
lemp-healt adj limping, halting, limphalt AHD
limpan, lamp, lumpon, lumpen vb.str.III to fall, befall, happen LRC
lippa n.masc lip ASD/W7
slǣp, slēap, slāp n.masc sleep ASD/W7
slǣpan, slēpan vb.wk to sleep ASD
Middle English: lappe n lap W7
lip n lip W7
slaveren vb to slaver W7
slepe n sleep W7
English: labellum n median member of orchid corolla AHD/W7
labium n folds at margin of vulva AHD/W7
labret n ornament worn in lip perforation AHD/W7
labrum n upper/anterior lip of arthropod AHD/W7
lap n loose panel/hanging flap of garment IEW/W7
limp adj slack, not stiff/rigid IEW/W7
limp vb.intrans to walk lamely IEW/W7
limphalt adj lame, halt AHD
lip n either of fleshy folds surrounding mouth in vertebrates AHD/W7
slab dial.adj/n slimy, viscous, slippery; bog, slough IEW
slamp vb.dial to limp, hobble; be careless/neglectful IEW
slaver vb to drool, drivel, slobber IEW/W7
sleep, slept vb to rest in state of sleep W7
sleep n natural periodic suspension of activity/consciousness AHD/W7
slemp vb.dial to slink, creep, crawl, step aside IEW
slump n bog, mire, morass, wet/damp place IEW
slump vb to fall/sink suddenly IEW/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: lippa n.masc lip ASD
slēp n sleep ASD
Dutch: lip n lip TLL
slapen vb to sleep LRC
Old Saxon: slāp n sleep ASD
slapan vb to sleep LRC
Old Low German: lepor n lip ASD
Old High German: leffur, lefs n lip ASD/W7
limphan, limfan vb to happen, convene IEW
slāf n sleep W7
German: Lippe n.fem lip LRC
Schlaf n.masc sleep LRC
schlafen vb to sleep LRC
Schlamm n mud TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: slafra vb to slaver W7
Norwegian: slumpa vb to slump W7
Danish: laebe n lip TLL
sove vb to sleep LRC
Swedish: läpp n lip TLL
sova vb to sleep LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: slēps n sleep ASD
Crimean Gothic: schlipen vb to sleep CGo
Latin: labellum n.neut little lip W7
labium n.neut lip W7
labor, labi vb.dep to slide, slip W7
labor, laboris n.masc labor, effort LRC
labrum n.neut lip, edge W7
New Latin: labium n.neut lip W7
labrum n.neut labrum W7
Greek: lobos n.masc part of an organ W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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