Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: legh-   'to move easily'

Semantic Field(s): to Move


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lēoht adj light, easy LRC
lungen n.fem lung ASD/W7
Middle English: elevaten vb to elevate W7
legerdemain n legerdemain W7
levain n leaven W7
lever n lever W7
light adj light W7
lightenen vb to lighten W7
lighter n lighter W7
lightes lights W7
lunge n lung W7
releven vb to relieve W7
English: alleviate vb.trans to moderate, make easier to endure AHD/W7
carnival n pre-Lenten season/festival of merrymaking AHD/W7
elevate vb.trans to raise, lift up AHD/W7
leaven n substance (e.g. yeast) producing gas/fermentation in dough/liquid AHD/W7
legerdemain n sleight of hand AHD/W7
lever n bar used to pry/dislodge something AHD/W7
levity n excessive/unseemly frivolity AHD/W7
light adj not heavy, having little weight AHD/W7
lighter n large flat-bottomed barge used to load/unload ships AHD/W7
Lightfoot prop.n Snowmane's dam in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
lightly adv not heavily LRC
lights lungs of (slaughtered) animal IEW/W7
lung n compound saccular thoracic respiratory organ of air-breathing vertebrate AHD/W7
mezzo-relievo n sculptural relief between bas-/high relief AHD/W7
relevant adj pertinent, bearing upon matter at hand AHD/W7
relieve vb to succor, free from evil/burden/distress AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: līcht adj light, easy ASD
Middle Dutch: lichten vb to unload W7
lichter n lighter W7
Dutch: long n lung TLL
Old Saxon: līht(līc) adj/adv light(ly) ASD
Old High German: līhti adj light, easy W7
lungun, lung(in)a n.fem lung ASD/W7
German: leicht adj light, easy ASD
Lunge n.fem lung ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: léttr adj light, easy ASD
lungu lungs ASD
Danish: lunge n lung TLL
Swedish: lunga n lung TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: leihts adj light, easy ASD
Latin: elevo, elevare, elevavi, elevatus vb to raise W7
levis adj light, smooth, mild W7
levitas, levitatis n.fem lightness, inconstancy W7
levo, levāre vb to lift, raise W7
relevo, relevare vb to raise up, relieve W7
Vulgar Latin: levamen n.neut leaven W7
Late Latin: allevio, alleviare, alleviavi, alleviatus vb to make light W7
Medieval Latin: relevans, relevantis adj/vb.ptc relevant W7
Old French: lever vb to raise W7
levier n.masc lever W7
Middle French: levain n.masc leaven W7
relever vb to raise, relieve W7
Italian: carnevale n.masc carnival W7
mezzorilievo n.masc half-relief W7
rilievo n.masc relief, remark W7
Lithuanian: leñgvas, lengvà adj light, easy LRC
Greek: elachys adj small W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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