Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: leid-   'to play, joke'

Semantic Field(s): to Play


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: deluden vb to delude W7
enterlude n interlude W7
illusion n illusion W7
English: allude vb.intrans to make indirect reference AHD/W7
collude vb.intrans to plot, conspire AHD/W7
delude vb.trans to trick, deceive, mislead AHD/W7
elude vb.trans to evade, avoid adroitly AHD/W7
illusion n action of deceiving AHD/W7
interlude n light/farcical entertainment between acts of mystery/morality play AHD/W7
ludic adj re: play/playfulness AHD
ludicrous adj ludic/amusing/laughable due to absurdity/eccentricity/exaggeration/incongruity AHD/W7
prelude n action/event/performance preceding/introducing principal/more important matter AHD/W7
prolusion n prelude, exercise, preliminary trial AHD/W7
Latin: allūdō, allūdere vb to jest, joke, play against W7
collūdō, collūdere vb to play together, have secret understanding W7
dēlūdō, dēlūdere vb to mock, delude, deceive W7
ēlūdō, ēlūdere vb to elude, avoid, escape W7
illūdō, illūdere, illūsī, illūsus vb to mock, jeer at, make sport of W7
illusio n.fem action of mocking W7
ludicrus adj entertaining W7
lūdō, lūdere vb to play (a game), mock W7
ludus n.masc play, sport, game W7
prōlūdō, prōlūdere, prōlūsī, prōlūsus vb to play beforehand W7
prolusio, prolusionis n.fem act of playing beforehand W7
Late Latin: illusio, illusionis n.fem illusion W7
Medieval Latin: interludium n.neut interlude, entertainment between acts (of play) W7
ludō, ludere vb to play W7
praeludium n.neut what is played before the main music W7
praelūdō, praelūdere vb to play beforehand W7
Middle French: illusion n.fem illusion W7
prélude n.masc prelude, music beforehand W7
Latvian: laist, laižu, laidu vb to release LRC
laišanās refl.n departing LRC
nolaisties, nolaižos, nolaidos vb to descend LRC
palaist, palaižu, palaidu vb to let go, release LRC
uzlaist, uzlaižu, uzlaidu vb to set on LRC
Greek: loidoros adj abusive W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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