Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: lento-   'lithe, flexible, pliable'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lind n.fem linden ASD/W7
linden adj made of linden-wood ASD/W7
līð(e) adj lithe, mild; kind, gracious ASD/W7
Middle English: linden n linden W7
lithe adj lithe W7
relenten vb to relent W7
English: lantana n tropical shrub with small bright flowers AHD/W7
lentamente adv slowly AHD/W7
lentissimo adv very slowly AHD/W7
lento adv slowly AHD/W7
linden n tree with large cordate leaves AHD/W7
lithe adj soft, calm, gentle; agile, supple AHD/W7
rallentando adv with gradual decrease in tempo AHD/W7
relent vb to become less harsh/strict/severe AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: linde n linden TLL
Old Saxon: līδi adj lithe, gracious, pleasant ASD
Old High German: lind(e) adj lithe ASD
lindi adj gentle W7
linta n linden ASD
German: gelind(e) adj lithe, gracious, pleasant ASD
Linde n linden ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: linr adj lithe, yielding ODE
Icelandic: lind n linden; spear, shield ASD
linr adj lithe, gracious, pleasant ASD
Danish: lind n linden TLL
Swedish: lind n linden TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: galeiþan vb.str.I to go, come, travel LRC
Latin: lentus adj slow, pliant, sluggish W7
New Latin: lantana n.fem (genus name) W7
Italian: allentare vb to loosen, slow down CID/W7
lentamente adv slowly W7
lento, lentissimo adj slow(est) W7
rallentare vb to slow down W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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