Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. lep-   'to flay, peel, skin'

Semantic Field(s): to Flay, Skin


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: læfer, leber n.fem reed, lever(s) IEW
Middle English: leper n leper W7
lepre n leprosy W7
English: elapid n venomous snake having grooved fangs AHD/W7
laparotomy n surgical section of abdominal wall AHD/W7
lemma n lower of 2 bracts enclosing flower in grass spikelet AHD/W7
leper n person infected with leprosy AHD/W7
lepidote adj covered with scurf/scurfy scales AHD/W7
leprosy n chronic disease marked by nodules/macules with loss of sensation W7
lepton n small Greek coin AHD/W7
levers rushes, sedges IEW
plasmalemma n differentiated protoplasmic surface of cell AHD/W7
sarcolemma n thin membrane enclosing striated muscle fiber AHD
West Germanic  
German: Lepra n.fem leprosy LRC
Late Latin: lepra n.fem leprosy W7
New Latin: Elaps n.masc snake genus W7
plasmalemma n.fem cell surface W7
Old French: lèpre n.fem leprosy W7
Greek: ellops adj mute W7
lapara n.fem flank W7
lemma n.neut husk, fruit skin W7
lepidōtos adj scaly W7
lepis, lepidos n.fem scale, envelope W7
lepra n.fem leprosy W7
lepton n.neut small coin W7
leptos adj light, delicate W7
lepw vb to peel W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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