Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: les-   'to lease, collect, pick up'

Semantic Field(s): to Gather, Collect


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lesan, læs, lǣson, lesen vb to lease ASD
Middle English: lesen vb to lease CDC
English: lease vb to glean, gather, collect, pick up/out ASD/CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: lesa vb to lease; read, peruse ASD/CDC
Dutch: lezen vb to lease; read, peruse ASD/CDC
Old Saxon: lesan vb to lease; read, peruse ASD/CDC
Middle Low German: lesen vb to lease; read, peruse ASD/CDC
Old High German: lesan vb to lease; read, peruse ASD/CDC
German: lesen vb to read CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: lesa vb to lease; read, express, concoct LRC
Icelandic: lesa vb to lease ASD
Danish: læse vb to read CDC
Swedish: läsa vb to read CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *lisan vb.str.VI to lease ASD/CDC/GED
Lithuanian: lesti vb to lease (corn) CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin

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