Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. leu-   'to free, cut off, separate'

Semantic Field(s): Free (adj), to Release, to Separate


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: forlēosan vb.str to lose W7/ASD
lēas adj/sfx vain, false; loose, bereft of; -less W7/ASD
lēas n.neut lie, deceit, falsehood ASD
lēasian vb.wk to lie, deceive, prevaricate W7/ASD
*lēosan vb.str.II to lose W7
los n.neut loss, destruction W7/ASD
losian vb.wk to lose, perish, get lost W7/ASD
Middle English: absolute adj absolute W7
absolven vb to absolve W7
as(s)oilen, as(s)oilien, assoylen vb to assoil W7
dissolven vb to dissolve W7
forloren vb.past.ptc lost, forlorn W7
lesen vb to lose, suffer loss W7
lesing n leasing W7
-les(se) adj.sfx -less W7
lorn adj lorn W7
los n loss W7
losel n rogue, rascal, worthless person W7
losen vb to lose, ruin W7
lous n louse W7
parlesie n palsy W7
soluble adj soluble W7
solven vb to solve W7
English: absolute adj perfect, free from imperfection AHD/W7
absolve vb.trans to free from obligation/consequences of guilt AHD/W7
analysis n separation of whole into component parts AHD/W7
assoil vb.trans to absolve, pardon AHD/W7
catalysis n increase/modification in rate of chemical reaction AHD/W7
dialysis n separating substances in solution AHD/W7
dissolve vb to destroy, cause to disperse/disappear AHD/W7
forlorn adj bereft, forsaken AHD/W7
lag n barrel stave AHD/W7
leasing n lie, falsehood, act of lying AHD/W7
leister n fishing spear with barbed prongs AHD/W7
-less adj.sfx devoid of, not having AHD/W7
loess n unstratified loamy material thought to be deposited by wind AHD/W7
loose adj not (rigidly/securely) fastened/attached AHD/W7
lorn adj lost, ruined AHD/W7
lose, lost vb.str to damn, bring to destruction AHD/W7
losel n worthless person AHD/W7
loss n act of losing AHD/W7
lues n syphilis AHD/W7
lyase n (kind of) enzyme AHD
lyo- pfx dispersion, dispersed state AHD/W7
lysis n gradual decline in, e.g., fever AHD/W7
-lyte n.sfx substance able to undergo decomposition AHD/W7
-lytic adj.sfx re: decomposition AHD/W7
lytic adj re: lysis/lysin AHD/W7
Nameless prop.n a.k.a. Sauron in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
palsy n paralysis AHD/W7
paralysis n complete/partial loss of bodily function AHD/W7
resolute adj resolved, marked by firm determination AHD/W7
resolve vb to melt, dissolve AHD/W7
soluble adj susceptible to being dissolved (as if) in fluid AHD/W7
solute n dissolved substance AHD/W7
solve vb.trans to find solution AHD/W7
tachylyte n black glassy basalt AHD/W7
Scots English: assoilzie vb to assoil CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: lās adj loose, without, free from ASD
Dutch: verliezen vb to lose ASD
Old Saxon: lōs adj false; loose, free from ASD
Old High German: lōs adj loose W7
German: los adj loose, without, free from ASD
Löß n.masc loess W7
Tachylyt n tachylyte W7
verlieren vb.str to lose ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: lauss adj loose, free LRC
ljósta vb to strike LRC
ljōstr n leister W7
losa vb to loosen W7
lögg n barrel rim W7
Icelandic: lauss adj loose, free, void ASD
los n looseness, breaking up ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: laus adj vain, empty ASD
láusjan vb.wk.I to free, deliver LRC
Latin: absolvo, absolvere, absolvi, absolutus vb to absolve, discharge, set free W7
dissolvo, dissolvere vb to untie, to dissolve W7
lues n.fem plague W7
luo, luere vb to release W7
paralysis n.fem paralysis W7
resolvo, resolvere, resolvi, resolutus vb to resolve, loosen W7
solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus vb to loosen, dissolve W7
Late Latin: solubilis adj soluble W7
Medieval Latin: analysis n analysis AHD
New Latin: analysis n.fem analysis, breaking up W7
dialysis n.fem dialysis W7
lyo- pfx loosening, dispersion W7
lysis n loosening, dissolution W7
Old French: as(s)oldre, assoil(li)er vb to assoil W7/CDC
Middle French: paralisie n.fem paralysis W7
soluble adj able to be loosened/dissolved W7
Greek: analysis n.fem breaking up W7
analyw vb to break up W7
dialysis n.fem separation W7
dialyw vb to dissolve W7
katalysis n.fem dissolution W7
katalyw vb to dissolve W7
lysis n.fem act of loosening W7
lytikos adj able to loosen W7
lytos adj that may be untied, soluble W7
λύω vb to loosen, free LRC
paralysis n.fem paralysis W7
paralyw vb to loosen, disable W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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