Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. leug-   'to bend'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: belūcan, belēac, belucon, belocen vb.str.II to lock, shut, close LRC
lé(a)c, lǣc n.neut leek, garden herb ASD/KEW
loc n.neut lock: fastening ASD/W7
locc n.masc lock: hair ASD/W7
lūcan, lēac, lucon, locen vb.str.II to lock LRC
Middle English: leek n leek W7
lok n lock: hair/fastening W7
English: Leaflock prop.n Ent a.k.a. Finglas in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
leek n biennial garden herb in lily family W7
lock n bolt, bar, fastening (operated e.g. by key) W7
lock n tuft/tress/ringlet of hair W7
lock vb to close/fasten/secure with lock W7
lockhole n hobbit lock-up in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: lūka vb to lock, close ASD
Old Saxon: ant-lūkan vb to lock, close ASD
bi-lūkan vb to lock, close ASD
lôk n leek KSW
Old High German: loc(c) n lock: hair ASD/W7
loh n.neut lock: fastening ASD/W7
louh n leek KDW
lūhhan vb to lock, close ASD
German: Lauch n leek LRC
Locke n lock: hair ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: laukr n.masc leek; plant LRC
lúka vb to end, finish, use up LRC
Old Icelandic: lok n.neut lock: fastening IEW
Icelandic: lok n conclusion ASD
loka n lock, latch ASD
lokkr n lock: hair ASD
lúka vb to lock, close ASD
Danish: løg n onion TLL
Swedish: lock n lid, cover LRC
lök n onion TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: galūkan vb.str.II to lock LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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