Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. leugh-   'to lie, belie, prevaricate'

Semantic Field(s): Lie, Falsehood, Deceit


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: belēogan vb to belie, deceive with lies AHD
lēogan, lēah, lugon, lēogen vb.str to lie ASD/W7
-loga sfx -lock W7
wǣrloga n one who breaks faith W7
Middle English: belien vb to belie AHD
lien vb to lie W7
warloghe n warlock W7
English: belie vb to tell lies, give false impression AHD/W7
lie vb.wk to prevaricate, make untrue statement AHD/W7
warlock n sorcerer, one using black magic AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: liaga vb to lie ASD
Old Saxon: liogan vb to lie ASD
Old High German: liogan, liugan vb to lie ASD/W7
German: leugnen vb to deny LRC
lügen vb to lie ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: ljúga vb to lie ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: liugan vb to lie ASD
Latvian: pielūgt, pielūdzu, pielūdzu vb to worship LRC
Old Slavic: lŭgati vb to lie W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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