Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. mā-   'timely, opportune'

Semantic Field(s): Fortune (Good or Bad)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: manes manes AHD
matines n matins W7
mature adj mature W7
English: immature adj premature AHD/W7
mañana adv tomorrow; at indefinite future time AHD/W7
manes departed spirits AHD
matinee n musical/dramatic event/performance event held in daytime AHD/W7
matins n religious office: one of first canonical hours AHD/W7
mature adj based on careful consideration AHD/W7
matutinal adj early, re: morning AHD/W7
premature adj existing/arriving/happening/performed before usual/proper time AHD/W7
Latin: immaturus adj immature, not ripe W7
mane adv early in the morning W7
mānēs n.masc ghost, shade, manes AHD/ELD
maturus adj ripe, mature W7
Matuta prop.n.fem goddess of morning W7
matutinae matins W7
matutinum n.neut morning W7
matutinus adj of the morning W7
praematurus adj too early W7
Late Latin: matutinae religious office celebrated in morning W7
matutinalis adj of the morning W7
Spanish: mañana adv tomorrow W7
Old French: matin n.masc morning W7
matines mass sung at dawn W7
French: matinée n.fem morning W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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