Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. mai-   'to maim, hew, cut with sharp instrument'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Scots Gaelic: maol adj bald, hornless W7
Welsh: moel adj bald, bare; mechanical W7/WE
Old English: æmette n emmet W7
gemād adj silly W7
mīte n mite W7
Middle English: ante n ant W7
emete n emmet W7
manglen vb to mangle W7
mayme n mayhem W7
maymen, maynhen vb to maim W7
mite n mite W7
English: ant n colonial hymenopterous insect AHD/W7
emmet n ant AHD/W7
maim vb.trans to commit mayhem upon AHD/W7
mangle vb.trans to cut/hack/bruise with repeated blows/strokes AHD/W7
mayhem n willful/permanent deprivation of limb (bodily member) AHD/W7
mite n small/minute arachnid AHD/W7
muley adj polled, hornless AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: mite n mite; small copper coin W7
Old High German: āmeiza n emmet W7
meizan vb to cut W7
German: Ameise n.fem emmet LRC
Old French: mahaim n.masc mayhem W7
maynier vb to maim W7
Anglo-French: mahaim n.masc mayhem W7
mangler vb to maim, mangle W7
Middle French: mite n.fem small Flemish copper coin W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
WE=H. Meurig Evans and W.O. Thomas: Welsh-English, English-Welsh Dictionary (1969)

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