Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: māk̑- : mək̑-   'long and slender'

Semantic Field(s): Long


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mæger adj meager W7
Middle English: megre adj meager W7
English: amphimacer n metrical foot: long + short + long syllable AHD/W7
emaciate vb to lose flesh, become very thin AHD/W7
macr(o)- pfx long, large LRC
macron n mark placed over vowel to indicate length/stress AHD/W7
meager adj lean, thin, having little flesh AHD/W7
paramecium n ciliate protozoan with elongated body AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: mager adj meager ASD
Old High German: magar adj meager ASD
German: mager adj meager ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: magr adj meager ASD
Danish: mager adj meager ASD
Swedish: mager adj meager ASD
Latin: amphimacrus adj long at both ends W7
emacio, emaciāre, emaciāvī, emaciātus vb to emaciate, pale W7
mācer, mācra, mācrum adj meager W7
māciēs n.fem leanness W7
New Latin: paramecium n.neut genus of ciliate protozoans W7
Middle French: maigre adj meager W7
Greek: amphimakros adj long at both ends W7
μακάριος adj blessed LRC
μακροθυμέω vb to be longsuffering LRC
makron n.neut macron W7
makros adj long, big W7
mēkos n.neut length W7
paramēkēs adj oblong W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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