Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: manu-s, or monu-s   'man, human being'

Semantic Field(s): Man, Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: monn, man n.str.masc man, person; (name for) M-rune LRC
mon(n)-cynn, man(n)-cynn n.neut mankind LRC
wīf-man(n), wīf-men n.str.masc woman, lit. wife-man ASD/W7
wīm-man(n), wīm-men n.str.masc woman, lit. wife-man ASD
Middle English: lefman, leman n leman, lit. lief-man W7
man n man W7
mankunde, mankyn(de) n mankind MEV
Norman prop.n Viking, lit. north-man W7
woman, women n woman W7
yoman n yeoman W7
English: Barliman prop.n Bree innkeeper in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
fugleman n trained soldier posted as model for men at drill AHD/W7
Holman prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
leman n lover, sweetheart AHD/W7
man, men n.str adult male human being AHD/W7
manikin n mannequin AHD/W7
mankind n human race, all human beings W7
mannequin n lay figure for artist/tailor/dressmaker AHD/W7
Mansbane prop.n a.k.a. Felarof in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Manu prop.n progenitor of human race (Hinduism) AHD/CDC
mens(c)h n one having admirable characteristics AHD
merman, mermen n fabled marine creature: fish-tailed man W7
muzhik n Russian peasant AHD
Norman prop.n man from Normandy (esp. ca. 1066) AHD/W7
ombudsman n one who investigates complaints and mediates settlements AHD
Púkel-men Wose-like statues in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Sandyman prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Saruman prop.n treacherous white wizard in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
westmansweed n pipe-weed in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
woman, women n adult female human being W7
Woodmen Mirkwood dwellers in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
yeoman, yeomen n officer/attendant in royal/noble household AHD/W7
British English: charwoman n woman hired to clean house/office W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: man n man W7
mannekijn n little man W7
Dutch: bemanning n crew TLL
man n man, husband TLL
mannekijn n little man W7
mins n man LRC
Old Saxon: man-kunni n mankind ASD
Old High German: man n.masc man W7
man-chunni n.neut mankind ASD
mennisco n human being AHD
Middle High German: mensch n.masc human being AHD
German: Flügelmann n.masc fugleman W7
Mann n.masc man W7
Mannschaft n crew TLL
Mensch n.masc man, person, human being LRC
Yiddish: Mensch n.masc mensch, human being AHD
North Germanic  
Runic: *mannaz n man; (name for) M-rune LRC
Old Norse: maðr n.masc man, person; husband; henchman LRC
Norþmaðr n Norseman W7
Old Icelandic: mann-kyn n.fem mankind ASD
Danish: mand n man, husband TLL
mandskab n crew TLL
menneske n man LRC
Swedish: man n.masc man TLL
människa n man LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: manna n.irr.masc man LRC
Old French: Normant adj Norman, from Normandy W7
French: mannequin n.masc model, dress stand W7
Russian: muzh n man, male AHD
Sanskrit: manuḥ n man AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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