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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. me-   'me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)'

Semantic Field(s): Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: me-sse pron.1.sg me GED
mē pron.1.sg.acc me GED
Scots Gaelic: mi pron.1.sg.nom/acc/dat I, me TLL
Welsh: mi pron.1.sg.acc me GED
Old English: mē pron.1.sg.dat/acc (to) me W7
mec, mic pron.1.sg.acc me GED
mīn pron.1.sg.gen/adj.poss my W7
Middle English: madam(e) n madam W7/AHD
me pron.1.sg (to) me W7
my pron.1.sg.gen my W7
English: Madam prop.n My Lady [title for married woman] AHD
madam n lady AHD/W7
mavourneen, mavournin n my darling AHD
me pron.1.sg.obj self [as (in)direct object] AHD/W7
mine pron.1.sg.gen.pred re: self [as possessor] AHD/W7
my pron.1.sg.gen.attr re: self [as possessor] AHD/W7
mynheer n Dutchman [title for gentleman] AHD/W7
myself pron.1.sg.refl self [emphasized] AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: me pron.1.sg.dat (to) me ASD
mi pron.1.sg.acc me ASD
mīn pron.1.sg.gen/adj.poss my ASD
Dutch: mij pron.1.sg.dat/acc (to) me
mijn pron.1.sg my W7
mijnheer n my lord/master W7
Old Saxon: mi pron.1.sg.dat/acc (to) me ASD
mik pron.1.sg me GED
mīn pron.1.sg.gen/adj.poss my ASD
Old High German: mih pron.1.sg.acc me GED/ASD
mīn pron.1.sg.gen/adj.poss my ASD
mir pron.1.sg.dat (to) me ASD
German: mein pron.1.sg.gen my LRC
mich pron.1.sg.acc me GED
mir pron.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
North Germanic  
Runic: mez pron.1.sg.dat me GED
m(i)k pron.1.sg.acc me GED
Old Icelandic: mek, mik pron.1.sg.acc me GED
mēr pron.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
Icelandic: mér pron.1.sg.dat (to) me ASD
mik pron.1.sg.acc me ASD
mīn pron.1.sg.gen my ASD
mīnn adj.poss my ASD
Danish: mig pron.1.sg.dat/acc (to) me TLL
min pron.1.sg.gen my TLL
Swedish: mej pron.1.sg.dat/acc.colq (to) me TLL
mig pron.1.sg.dat/acc (to) me TLL
min pron.1.sg.gen my TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: meina pron.1.sg.gen my ASD
meins adj.poss my, mine LRC
mik pron.1.sg.acc me GED
Umbrian: mehe pron.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
Old Latin: mēd pron.1.sg.acc me GED
mei pron.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
Latin: mē pron.1.sg.acc me GED
meus, mea, meum pron.1.sg.gen/adj.poss my LRC
mihi, mī pron.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
French: madame n.fem madam AHD
mademoiselle n.fem girl, lit. my young lady AHD
monsieur n.masc mister, gentleman, lit. my sir AHD
American French: Madame prop.n.fem Madam [title for married woman] AHD
Mademoiselle prop.n.fem Miss, My Young Lady [title for girl/unmarried woman] AHD
Monsieur prop.n.masc Mister, My Sir [title for gentleman] AHD
Italian: me pron.1.sg.acc/dat me
Lithuanian: -m enc.1.sg.acc me GED
manè pron.1.sg.acc me GED
-mi enc.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
Latvian: mani pron.1.sg.acc me GED
mans pron.1.sg.gen my LRC
Old Church Slavonic: mi pron.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
moi pron.1.sg.gen my LRC
mę pron.1.sg.acc me GED
Russian: menya pron.1.sg.acc me TLL
mne pron.1.sg.dat (to) me TLL
Albanian: im pron.1.sg.gen my IEW
mua pron.1.sg me GED
mue pron.1.sg me GED
Greek: ἐμέ, ἐμέγε pron.1.sg.acc me GED
ἐμοί pron.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
με enc.1.sg.acc me GED
μοι enc.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
Lycian: amu pron.1.sg.acc me GED
Hittite: ammuk pron.1.sg.acc me GED
-mu enc.1.sg.acc me GED
Old Persian: mām pron.1.sg.acc me GED
Avestan: mā enc.1.sg.acc me GED
maibyā pron.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
Sanskrit: máhyam pron.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
mā enc.pron.1.sg.acc me GED
mām pron.1.sg.acc me GED
Tocharian B: -ñ enc.1.sg.acc me GED
ñä-ś pron.1.sg.acc me GED
Tocharian A: -ñi enc.1.sg.dat (to) me GED
ñuk pron.1.sg.acc me GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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