Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. me-   'me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)'

Semantic Field(s): Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: me-sse me GED
mē me GED
Scots Gaelic: mi I, me TLL
Welsh: mi me GED
Old English: mē (to) me W7
mec, mic me GED
mīn my W7
Middle English: madam(e) n madam W7/AHD
me (to) me W7
my my W7
English: Madam prop.n My Lady [title for married woman] AHD
madam n lady AHD/W7
mavourneen, mavournin n my darling AHD
me self [as (in)direct object] AHD/W7
mine re: self [as possessor] AHD/W7
my re: self [as possessor] AHD/W7
mynheer n Dutchman [title for gentleman] AHD/W7
myself self [emphasized] AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: me (to) me ASD
mi me ASD
mīn my ASD
Dutch: mij (to) me
mijn my W7
mijnheer n my lord/master W7
Old Saxon: mi (to) me ASD
mik me GED
mīn my ASD
Old High German: mih me GED/ASD
mīn my ASD
mir (to) me ASD
German: mein my LRC
mich me GED
mir (to) me GED
North Germanic  
Runic: mez me GED
m(i)k me GED
Old Icelandic: mek, mik me GED
mēr (to) me GED
Icelandic: mér (to) me ASD
mik me ASD
mīn my ASD
mīnn adj.poss my ASD
Danish: mig (to) me TLL
min my TLL
Swedish: mej (to) me TLL
mig (to) me TLL
min my TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: meina my ASD
meins adj.poss my, mine LRC
mik me GED
Umbrian: mehe (to) me GED
Old Latin: mēd me GED
mei (to) me GED
Latin: mē me GED
meus, mea, meum my LRC
mihi, mī (to) me GED
French: madame n.fem madam AHD
mademoiselle n.fem girl, lit. my young lady AHD
monsieur n.masc mister, gentleman, lit. my sir AHD
American French: Madame prop.n.fem Madam [title for married woman] AHD
Mademoiselle prop.n.fem Miss, My Young Lady [title for girl/unmarried woman] AHD
Monsieur prop.n.masc Mister, My Sir [title for gentleman] AHD
Italian: me me
Lithuanian: -m me GED
manè me GED
-mi (to) me GED
Latvian: mani me GED
mans my LRC
Old Church Slavonic: mi (to) me GED
moi my LRC
mę me GED
Russian: menya me TLL
mne (to) me TLL
Albanian: im my IEW
mua me GED
mue me GED
Greek: ἐμέ, ἐμέγε me GED
ἐμοί (to) me GED
με me GED
μοι (to) me GED
Lycian: amu me GED
Hittite: ammuk me GED
-mu me GED
Old Persian: mām me GED
Avestan: mā me GED
maibyā (to) me GED
Sanskrit: máhyam (to) me GED
mā me GED
mām me GED
Tocharian B: -ñ me GED
ñä-ś me GED
Tocharian A: -ñi (to) me GED
ñuk me GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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